Philippians is a joyful letter, but its undercurrent is a sober realization that time is running out. Paul was facing a possible death sentence; the church was bracing itself against the effects of persecution and false doctrine. The city with a famous past and a privileged and proud present was about to hear the good news of a status conferred not by man but by God (3:9), proclaimed by a man who had come to see all human and inherited dignities as so much rubbish in contrast with the surpassing worth of knowing the Lord Jesus Christ (3:8). Paul and Silas began in Philippi with a few women gathering at a prayer-place outside the town (Ac 16:12f). The first Christians there were the jailor and Lydia (cf. Ac 16:40). Paul wrote from prison (1:13). Of the four known imprisonments which the apostle suffered - in Philippi, Jerusalem, Caesarea and Rome - the latter two are the more likely places of writing, although a fifth imprisonment at Ephesus could have taken place and not have been recorded (cf. Ac 19). Paul had been updated on news of the church since the arrival of Epaphroditus and he addresses himself to specific needs as they have been known to him. One of their needs is to preserve unity. Euodia and Syntyche, the quarrelling women, are a symptom of a malaise which could prove fatal for the church. It was a serious thing - and risky - for Paul to call public attention to them. There is also the possibility of the church coming under attack from a hostile world for which the most effective defence is a united church. The 'enemies of the cross' may well have grasped proper doctrine but in their behaviour they deified their appetites, honoured shameful values and concentrated on the world. The call to unity here sounds for believers to live lives that conform to the salvation which Jesus accomplished. The two themes of unity and the reality of the attack upon the church are brought together in the third major theme in Philippians, the expected return of our Lord Jesus.

1 1Paul [Paulos] and Timothy [Timotheos], servants [douloi] of Jesus Christ; To all the saints [agiois] in Christ Jesus who are at Philippi [Philippois]

The provincial capital was Thessalonica, but Philippi had its own importance both past and present. It took its name from the father of Alexander the Great, Philip of Macedon, who captured the city from the Thracians in 360 BC. More recently it had been the scene of the decisive battle in which armies loyal to the murdered Julius Caesar, fighting under the joint command of Octavian (later the emperor Augustus) and Mark Antony, defeated the rebel forces of Brutus and Cassius. It was to honour this event that the dignity of being a 'colony' was conferred on the now-enlarged city. As such, Philippi was a miniature Rome with the ius Italicum conferred on her residents by Augustus. So the privileges of Philippians were the same as those living on Italian soil: those of ownership, transfer of land, payment of taxes, local administration and law, etc. As Roman citizens they enjoyed freedom from scourging and arrest and the right of appeal to Caesar, cf. Ac 16:37-8; 25:11. The coins of Philippi bore Latin inscriptions.

, with the overseers [episkopois] and servants [diakonois]: 2Grace [charis] to you, and peace from God, our Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ. 3I thank [eucharisteō] my God whenever I remember you, 4always in every request of mine on behalf of you all making my requests with joy [charas], 5for your partnership [koinōnia] in furtherance of the Good News [euangelion] from the first day until now; 6being confident of this very thing, that he who began [enarchomai]

Means 'to inaugurate' and the tense used here points to a decisive and deliberate act.

a good [agathon] work in you will complete [epiteleō] it until the day of Jesus Christ. 7It is even right [dikaion] for me to think this way on behalf of all of you, because I have you in my heart, because, both in my bonds [desmois] and in the defense and confirmation [bebaiōsei]

Related to the word Peter used about confirming one's call and election (2 Pet 1:10). It occurs again in Hebrews 6:16 with the idea of giving something a firmer or more enduring basis, or making it more certain in some respect than it was before.

of the Good News [euangeliou], you all are partakers [sygkoinōneō] with me of grace [charitos]. 8For God is my witness [martyreō], how I long after [epipotheō]

Expresses a clamant longing and need (used, for example, in 2:26, of homesickness).

all of you in the tender mercies [splagchnois] of Christ Jesus. 9This I pray, that your love [agapē] may abound yet more and more in knowledge [epignōsei]

Occurs twenty times in NT, always referring to knowledge of the things of God, religious, spiritual, theological knowledge. Often it has the idea of seeing right to the heart of the matter, grasping something as it really is, cf. Ro 3:20; (Ro 10:2).

and all discernment [pasē aisthēsei]

'All intelligence'; 'the consciousness to make a moral decision.' Only occurrence in NT, but a related word is found in He 5:14, where it is translated 'faculties'. The parent verb aisthanomai means 'to perceive', 'to grasp the significance of'.

; 10so that you may approve [dokimazō]

Including the mental side of recognizing worth, and also the practical side of putting it to the test of experience.

the things that are excellent [diapheronta]

Lit. 'the differing things', implying superior quality, cf. Ro 2:18.

; that you may be sincere [eilikrineis]

Sometimes said to mean lit. 'judged of in the sunlight', cf. 1 Cor 5:8; 2 Cor 1:12; 2:17; 2 Pe 3:1.

and without offense to the day of Christ; 11being filled with the fruits of righteousness [dikaiosynēs], which are through Jesus Christ, to the glory and praise of God. 12Now I desire to have you know, brothers [adelphoi], that the things which happened [erchomai]

That which 'has turned out'. Paul had endured near lynching and ended up in the Roman prison having narrowly escaped flogging. His whole case was beset by a mockery of justice, for though right was on his side, he could not secure a hearing. He was made the subject of unjust and unprovoked insult and shame, malicious misrepresentation and deadly plot. He was kept imprisoned owing to official craving for popularity, or for money, or because of an over-punctilious fa├žade of legalism (Ac 21:7-26:32). Then there was the storm at sea which threatened his life both because of the elements and because of petty officiousness (Ac 27). Eventually, when he reached Rome, it was far from an ambassadorial entry, coming in the company of the condemned, bound by a chain and destined to drag out at least two years under arrest awaiting the uncertain decision of an earthly king. Paul must have endured the mental turmoil of having appealed to Caesar against his own people. This is Paul's position: imprisoned, chained, unheard and uncertain. Yet he must have recalled the support of the 'son of Paul's sister', Aristarchus, Luke and unexpected allies like the centurion, Julius, and unknown ones who cared for him in his need and faced a strained reputation by walking out to meet his sad procession as it neared Rome (Ac 23:16; 27:1f; 43; 28:15.

to me have turned out rather to the progress of the Good News [euangeliou]; 13so that it became evident to the whole praetorian guard [praitōriō]

The praetorian guard was a picked division of crack imperial troops. Membership was much sought after, since double pay and different conditions of service were enjoyed, and there were good pension prospects as well as special duties. One duty was to mount guard over prisoners awaiting trial before the Caesar himself, and we can imagine a long line of praetorians who took it in turn to be Paul's warders.

, and to all the rest, that my bonds [desmous] are in Christ; 14and that most of the brothers [adelphōn] in the Lord, being confident [peithō] through my bonds [desmois], are more abundantly bold to speak the word [logon] of God without fear. 15Some indeed preach [kēryssō]

'To do the work of a herald'.

Christ even out of envy and strife, and some also out of good will. 16The former insincerely preach [katangellō] Christ from selfish ambition, thinking that they add affliction to my chains [desmois]; 17but the latter out of love [agapēs], knowing that I am appointed for the defense [apologian]

A military term. When a praetorian's period of guard duty was over, he was relieved by another. The chain was passed from hand to hand and the new guard was 'set' to keep watch over Paul. Perhaps he smiled at the irony, as he thinks of himself to guard him - for Christ.

of the Good News [euangeliou]. 18What does it matter? Only that in every way, whether in pretense or in truth, Christ is proclaimed [katangellō]. I rejoice [chairō] in this, yes, and will rejoice [chairō]. 19For I know that this will turn out to my salvation [sōtērian], through your supplication [deēseōs] and the supply of the Spirit of Jesus Christ, 20according to my earnest expectation [apokaradokian]

This compound word is made of up the elements 'away', 'the head' and 'to watch'; so 'watching something with the head turned away from other objects'.

and hope, that I will in no way be disappointed, but with all boldness [parrēsia], as always, now also Christ will be magnified [megalynō] in my body [sarki], whether by life, or by death. 21For to me to live is Christ, and to die is gain. 22But if I live on in the flesh, this will bring fruit from my work; yet I don't know what I will choose. 23But I am in a dilemma between the two, having the desire to depart [analuō]

Possibly a camping metaphor meaning that death for the Christian is the end of what was at best a transitory thing, a camp-life, in which he travels without a fixed resting-place. This is to be exchanged for the 'house not made with hands, eternal in the heavens' (2 Cor 5:1). Only other occurrence in Lk 12:36 in the sense 'to come home'. The noun analysis occurs only at 2 Tim 4:6. It has also been noted that the verb analuō was used in Paul's day to picture a ship being untied from the dock and setting sail for a new destination.

and be with Christ, which is far better. 24Yet, to remain in the flesh [sarki] is more needful for your sake. 25Having this confidence, I know that I will remain, yes, and remain with you all, for your progress and joy [charan] in the faith [pisteōs], 26that your rejoicing [kauchēma] may abound in Christ Jesus in me through my presence [parousias] with you again. 27Only let your manner of life be worthy of the Good News [euangeliou] of Christ, that, whether I come and see you or am absent, I may hear of your state, that you stand firm [histēmi] in one spirit [en heni pneumatic, mia psychē]

'In one spirit, with one soul'. The soul refers to the sphere of the affections and moral energies; what are priorities and driving forces of life. It is a single description of that complex of heart, mind and will which is our experience of ourselves 'on the inside' day by day.

, with one soul striving [synathleō] for the faith [pistei] of the Good News [euangeliou]; 28and in nothing frightened [ptyrō]

Lit. 'stampeded'. Found only here in biblical Greek and denotes the uncontrollable stampede of startled horses.

by the adversaries, which is for them a proof [endeixis]

'Sign, omen or proof', 'demonstration'.

of destruction [apōleias], but to you of salvation, and that from God. 29Because it has been granted [charizomai] to you on behalf of Christ, not only to believe [pisteuō] in him, but also to suffer [paschō] on his behalf, 30having the same conflict which you saw in me, and now hear is in me.

2 1If there is therefore any exhortation [paraklēsis] in Christ, if any consolation [paramythion] of love [agapēs], if any fellowship [koinōnia] of the Spirit, if any tender mercies [splagchna]

Lit. 'bowels'; the inner source of the emotions, equivalent to our use of 'heart' as the seat of feelings.

and compassion [oiktirmoi]

The feelings themselves, emotions reaching out towards their object.

, 2make my joy [charan] full [plēroō], by being like-minded [auto phronēte], having the same love [agapēn], being of one accord [sympsychoi], of one mind [symphōneō]; 3doing nothing through rivalry [epitheian]


Not laws but the consciousness of always being watched was what prevented a Roman's sense of competition from degenerating into selfish ambition. There could be no place for ill-disciplined vainglory. To place personal honour above the interests of the entire community was the behaviour of a barbarian.

or through conceit, but in humility, each counting others better than himself; 4each of you not just looking [skepeō] to his own things, but each of you also to the things of others. 5Have this in your mind [phroneite], which was also in Christ Jesus, 6who, existing in the form [hyparchōn]

'Subsisting', 'to be (in possession of)'. Ta hyparchonta means 'possessions', e.g., Mt 19:21; 1 Cor 13:3.

of God, didn't consider equality with God a thing to be grasped [harpagmon]

Occurs nowhere else in biblical Greek, but cf. Mt 23:25, 'extortion'; Heb 10:34, 'plundering'; Mt 11:12; Jn 6:15, 'take by force'; Jn 10:12, 'snatches'. Often occurs with hēgeomai, 'think,' 'consider,' 'regard,' in the sense 'to clutch greedily, 'set store by', 'a prize which must not slip from one's grasp'. Two other possible meanings are 'a position which could be exploited (for self-advantage)' and 'a thing to be grasped for self as a robber grasps after loot'.

, 7but emptied [kenoō]

In every other NT instance means 'to deprive something of its proper place and use'; Jesus' glory was not lessened but concealed; he did not become less like himself by becoming a man. The emptying or kenosis (not an NT word) is not the shedding of any of his attributes but an emptying of himself entirely into another form. Christ's divine nature is brought undiminished into a new and breath- taking state, cf. Is 53:12.

himself, taking the form [morphēn]

Only here in the NT but cf. the verb morphoōmai, Gal 4:19, where is refers to the inner development and outward manifestation of the life of Christ in the believer. Cf. English usage; 'in good form' and 'form of'.

of a servant [doulou], being made in the likeness [schēmati]


of men. 8And being found in human form, he humbled himself, becoming obedient to [mechri]

'Unto', 'obedient as far as or right up to the point of'.

death, yes, the death of the cross [staurou]. 9Therefore [dio] God also highly exalted [hyperypsoō] him, and gave to him the name which is above every name; 10that at the name of Jesus every knee should bow, of those in heaven [epouraniōn], those on earth [epigeiōn], and those under the earth [katachthoniōn], 11and that every tongue should confess that Jesus Christ is Lord, to the glory [doxan]

So concludes the early hymn or poem. There is debate whether the hymn was composed by Paul or used here as an apt quotation on which he set his apostolic imprimatur.

of God the Father. 12So then [Hōste], my beloved [agapētoi], even as you have always obeyed, not only in my presence [parousia], but now much more in my absence, work out [katergazomai] your own salvation with fear [phobou] and trembling [tromou]. 13For it is God who works [energeō] in you both to will and to work [energeō], for his good pleasure [eudokias]. 14Do all things without murmurings [gongysmōn] and disputes [dialogismōn], 15that you may become blameless and harmless, children of God without blemish in the midst of a crooked and perverse generation, among whom you are seen as lights [phainō hōs phōstēres]

Can mean radiance as in Rev 21:11 but also a light-bearing body (LXX Ge 1:14, 16); classically, a 'lantern'.

in the world [kosmō], 16holding up [epechō]

'Hold fast' or 'hold forth'. Classically this word is used of offering food or wine to somebody.

the word of life [logon zōēs]; that I may have something to boast [kauchaomai] in the day of Christ, that I didn't run in vain nor labour in vain. 17Yes, and if I am poured out [spendō]

The regulations for this part of the sacrificial system in the OT are not absolutely clear, but we know that the drink offering was the accompaniment of a larger sacrifice, e.g., Nu 15:8ff.

on the sacrifice and service [leitourgia] of your faith [pisteōs], I rejoice [chairō], and rejoice with you all [sygchairō]. 18In the same way, you also rejoice [chairō], and rejoice with [sygchairō] me. 19But I hope in the Lord Jesus to send Timothy [Timotheon] to you soon, that I also may be cheered up when I know how you are doing. 20For I have no one else like-minded [isopsychon]

Lit. 'of equal soul', occurs only here in the NT.

, who will truly [gnēsiōs]

Contains the idea 'as a birthright', something possessed by spiritual parentage.

care [merimnaō] about you. 21For they all seek their own, not the things of Jesus Christ. 22But you know the proof [dokimēn] of him, that, as a child serves [douleuō] a father, so he served with me in furtherance of the Good News [euangelion]. 23Therefore I hope to send him at once, as soon as I see how it will go with me. 24But I trust in the Lord that I myself also will come shortly. 25But I counted it necessary to send to you Epaphroditus [Epaphroditon], my brother , fellow worker [synergon], fellow soldier [systratiōtēn], and your apostle [apostolon] and servant [leitourgon] of my need; 26since he longed for you all, and was very troubled [adēmoneuō]

Used of the Lord's deep trouble of spirit in the garden (Mk 14:33), cf. Lk 10:14; 2 Cor 11:28.

, because you had heard that he was sick. 27For indeed he was sick, nearly to death, but God had mercy on him; and not on him only, but on me also, that I might not have sorrow on sorrow. 28I have sent him therefore the more diligently, that, when you see him again, you may rejoice [charas], and that I may be the less sorrowful. 29Receive him therefore in the Lord with all joy, and hold such in honour, 30because for the work of Christ he came near to death, risking [paraboleuomai]

Only occurrence in NT but elsewhere used as a gambling term.

his life [psychē] to supply that which was lacking in your service [leitourgias] toward me.

3 1Finally [To loipon], my brothers [adelphoi], rejoice [chairō] in the Lord. To write the same things to you, to me indeed is not tiresome, but for you it is safe. 2Beware of the dogs [kynas]

A highly offensive term.

, beware of the evil [kakous] workers, beware of the false circumcision. 3For we are the circumcision, who worship [latreuō]

This word has an exclusively religious significance which holds together the two aspects of the word 'service' in our usage: 'Christian service' and 'church service', a conjunction of worship and work.

God in the Spirit, and rejoice [kauchaomai] in Christ Jesus, and have no confidence [peithō] in the flesh [sarki]; 4though I myself might have confidence [pepoithēsin] even in the flesh [sarki]. If any other man thinks that he has confidence [peithō] in the flesh [sarki], I yet more: 5circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews [Hebraiōn]

A Hebrew-speaker, with Hebrew-speaking parents.

; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 6concerning zeal, persecuting [diōkō] the assembly [ekklēsian]; concerning the righteousness [dikaiosynēn] which is in the law, found blameless. 7However, what things were gain [kerdē]

'What things (plural) were to me gain'. Paul has taken his advantages on the credit side item by item, forgetting nothing. When his accountant's eye travels down the list, and the sum total is reckoned, and the line drawn beneath the completed sum, the answer is an uncompromising singular loss.

to me, these have I counted loss for Christ. 8Yes most certainly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency [hyperechon] of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse [skybala], that I may gain Christ 9and be found [euriskō] in him, not having a righteousness [dikaiosynēn] of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith [pistei] in Christ, the righteousness [dikaiosynēn] which is from God by faith [pistei]; 10that I may know him, and the power [dynamin] of his resurrection [anastaseōs], and the fellowship [koinōnian] of his sufferings, becoming conformed [symmorphoō]

Only occurrence in NT. Contains as one component morphē, 'form', implying identity of nature and life style.

to his death; 11if by any means I may attain to the resurrection [exanastasin] from the dead. 12Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect [teleioō]; but I press on [diōkō]

'Press on', 'persecute', cf. v6. The figure could be of a chariot- race.

, if it is so that I may take hold of [katalambanō]

'Lay hold of', 'grasp', 'accomplish'.

that for which also I was taken hold of [katalambanō]

The verb 'took hold of' or 'seize' suggests that Christ 'arrested' him before he had the chance to arrest any Christians in Damascus.

by Christ Jesus. 13Brothers [adelphoi], I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before, 14I press on [diōkō] toward the goal for the prize [brabeion] of the high calling [anō klēseōs] of God in Christ Jesus. 15Let us therefore, as many as are perfect [teleioi]

The adjective which corresponds with the verb in v12, perhaps drawn from the vocabulary of athletics: 'Am perfect' means 'crowned as victor', 'having attained the prize'. 'Mature' means 'fit', 'in training', 'ready for the contest'.

, think this way. If in anything you think otherwise, God will also reveal [apokalyptō] that to you. 16Nevertheless, to the extent that we have already attained, let us walk by the same rule [stoicheō kanoni]

'By the same rule walk', 'to practice a rule of life'. The sentence goes on to auto phronein, to be of the same mind.

. Let us be of the same mind. 17Brothers [adelphoi], be imitators together [symmimētai] of me, and note those who walk [peripateō] this way, even as you have us for an example [typon]. 18For many walk [peripateō], of whom I told you often, and now tell you even weeping, as the enemies of the cross [staurou] of Christ, 19whose end is destruction, whose god is the belly [koilia]


In Rome pleasure and excitement had been dulled by excess. Games designed to glorify the Republic served to glorify only the sponsor himself. Cf. also Rom 1:29, Ja 5:5, 2 Pe 3:3.

, and whose glory is in their shame, who think about earthly things. 20For our citizenship [politeuma]

Roman citizenship

To a Roman, nothing was more sacred or cherished than citizenship. It was what defined him. Public business - res publica - was what 'republic' meant. Only by seeing himself reflected in the gaze of his fellows could a Roman truly know himself a man. The good citizen, in the Republic, was the citizen acknowledged to be good. The Romans recognized no difference between moral excellence and reputation, having the same word, honestas, for both. Citizens were promoted or demoted each according to his worth. Once the raw information had been collated by scribes, it would then be carefully scrutinized by two magistrates. The office of these magistrates, the censorship, was the most prestigious in the Republic and was regarded as the climax of a political career. So sensitive were the duties of a censor that only the most senior and reputable of citizens could be entrusted with them. The maintenance of everything that structured the Republic depended on their judgement. Few Romans doubted that if the census were not conducted adequately, then the entire fabric of their society would fall apart.

is in heaven, from where we also wait [apekdechomai]

Expresses concentrated eagerness and persistence of expectation. Suggests an eye detached from every other object to watch only for him.

for a Saviour, the Lord Jesus Christ; 21who will change [metasscēmatizō] the body of our humiliation to be conformed [symmorphon] to the body of his glory [doxēs], according to the working by which he is able [energeian tou dynamai] even to subject [hypotassō] all things to himself.

4 1Therefore, my brothers [adelphoi], beloved [agapaō] and longed for, my joy [chara] and crown [stephanos], so stand firm in the Lord, my beloved [agapētoi]. 2I exhort Euodia [Euodian], and I exhort Syntyche [Syntuchēn], to think the same way in the Lord. 3Yes, I beg you also, true yokefellow [syzyge], help these women, for they labored with me in the Good News [euangeliō], with Clement [Klēmentos] also, and the rest of my fellow workers, whose names are in the book of life [biblō zōēs]. 4Rejoice [chairō] in the Lord always! Again I will say, Rejoice [chairō]! 5Let your gentleness [epieikēs]

'Gentle forbearance', the uncomplaining readiness to accept others as they are and to submit to their demands.

be known [ginōskō] to all men. The Lord is at hand. 6In nothing be anxious [merimnaō], but in everything, by prayer [proseuchē]

General; its inner thought is that of addressing a request to God.

and petition [deēsei]

Points to our lowly status as suppliants.

with thanksgiving [eucharistias], let your requests [aitēmata] be made known to God. 7And the peace of God, which surpasses [hyperechō] all understanding [noun], will guard [phroureō]

Will 'garrison'.

your hearts and your thoughts in Christ Jesus. 8Finally [To loipon], brothers [adelphoi], whatever things are true, whatever things are honourable [semna]

'Venerable', 'serious-minded', not lacking a sense of humour and afraid to laugh, but dreading superficiality and flippancy, cf. 1 Tim 3:8, 11; Tit 2:2.

, whatever things are just [dikaia], whatever things are pure, whatever things are lovely, whatever things are of good report [euphēma]

Only occurrence in NT. The noun in 2 Cor 6:8 means 'the circulating of a good opinion', a 'well-speaking', so the adjective describes that which 'speaks well' or 'commends'.

; if there is any virtue, and if there is any praise, think about [logizomai]

Ponder, give proper weight and value to, and allow the appraisal to influence the way life is to be lived.

these things. 9The things which you learned, received [paralambanō], heard, and saw in me: do these things, and the God of peace will be with you. 10But I rejoice [chairō] in the Lord greatly, that now at length you have revived your thought for me; in which you did indeed take thought, but you lacked opportunity. 11Not that I speak in respect to lack, for I have learned in whatever state I am, to be content in it. 12I know how to be humbled, and I know also how to abound. In everything and in all things I have learned the secret [myeō]

'I am initiated'; used in the Greek mystery religions to describe people who had worked their way up through the various lower 'degrees' and had finally been admitted into full possession of 'the mystery' itself. By comparison Paul had made his way up through the degrees of progressive detachment from worldly things. Paul also in this way showed his distinctiveness from Roman culture. The Roman people were restless, never content with what they had, but always striving and fighting for more. They were familiar with struggle.

both to be filled and to be hungry, both to abound and to be in need. 13I can do all things [endynamoō] through Christ, who strengthens [ischyō]me. 14However you did well [kalōs] that you shared in my affliction [thlipsei]. 15You yourselves also know, you Philippians [Philippēsioi], that in the beginning of the Good News [euangeliou], when I departed from Macedonia [Makedonias], no assembly [ekklēsia] shared [koinōneō] with me in the matter of giving and receiving but you only. 16For even in Thessalonica [Thessalonikē] you sent once and again to my need. 17Not that I seek for the gift, but I seek for the fruit that increases to your account. 18But I have all things, and abound. I am filled, having received from Epaphroditus [Epaphroditou] the things that came from you, a sweet-smelling fragrance, an acceptable and well-pleasing sacrifice to God. 19My God will supply every need of yours according to his riches [plouton] in glory [doxē] in Christ Jesus. 20Now to our God and Father be the glory forever and ever! Amen [amēn]. 21Greet [aspazomai] every saint [agion] in Christ Jesus. The brothers [adelphoi] who are with me greet you. 22All the saints [agioi] greet you, especially those who are of Caesar's household [Kaisaros oikias]. 23The grace [charis] of the Lord [kyriou]

From the OT Adonai, meaning Lord or Sovereign, a substitute for the self- disclosed name of God, Yahweh, I AM.

Jesus Christ be with you all. Amen [amēn].

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