Luke

It is likely that both of Luke's two books were produced in the early sixties of the first century, late enough for Luke to include an account of Paul's imprisonment. Luke was the apostle Paul's friend and travelling companion. The Greek name and Luke's grasp of the Greek language suggest that Luke was a Gentile. See Col 4:10, 11 (Jewish workers) and Col 4:12-14 (others). Luke writes about the 'Gentile mission', the spread of the good news beyond the bounds of the Israelite nation. The Gospel is Gentile in its spirit and outlook, a remarkable fact considering that many in the church were very conscious of their Jewish roots. It is also a universal gospel and Luke presents many classes of people and shows how the gospel is for Jews and also for Greeks; for Romans and also for Samaritans; for males and also for females (not only important women like the wife of Herod's steward, but widows and cripples and prostitutes); for freemen and also for slaves and those whom society despises: the poor, weak and outcast, the thief and the quisling.

A strong and ancient tradition attributes Luke as the anonymous subject of 2 Corinthians 8:18.

It was the custom in antiquity whenever a work was divided into more than one volume (in this case, Luke and Acts) for the preface to volume one to act for the whole work. So Luke 1:1-4 is the preface to Acts as well as the Gospel.



1 1Since many have undertaken to set in order [anatassomai]

In contrast perhaps to the earlier generation represented by Peter who, according to tradition, 'used to adapt his instructions to the needs [of the moment] (Papias, quoted in Eusebius, 'Historia Ecclesiae. III. 39), drawing on whichever of his vivid recollections of Jesus was most appropriate for the audience to which he happened to be speaking.

a narrative [diēgēsin] concerning those matters which have been fulfilled [plērophoreō] among us, 2even as those who from the beginning [ap' archēs] were eyewitnesses [autoptai] and servants [hypēretai] of the word [logou] delivered [paradidōmi]

For traditions about Jesus that were guarded and handed on see 2 Thes 2:15; cf. 1 Cor 11:23; 15:3; 1 Tim 6:20; 2 Tim 1:12-14. The eye-witness accounts had become incorporated in to the living word.

them to us, 3it seemed good [akribōs] to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately [akribōs] from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus [kratiste Theophile]

The adjective theolphiles means either 'loved by God' or 'loving God'. The description 'most excellent' occurs in relation to the procurators Felix (23:26; 24:3) and Festus (26:25). Cf. modern equivalent 'Your Excellency'. It is debated whether the designation refers to an official rank or is merely a courtesy title. Theophilus may have been a real name or pseudonym; a convert or onlooker.

; 4that you might know [epignōs] the certainty [asphaleian]

Or 'infallibility'. In the original occurs at the end of the sentence for emphasis.

concerning the things in which you were instructed [katēcheō]

'Informed': represents a Greek word which could imply either that he has undergone Christian instruction (cf. Ac 18:25) or that he has heard an unfriendly report (cf. Ac 21:21, 24).

. 5There was in the days of Herod [Hrōdou]

Herod

Herod 'The Great' came to prominence and notoriety during his father's time as Governor of Galilee. There, in the true spirit of Roman rule, he destroyed a band of semi religious guerrillas, and had the leaders executed without trial solely on his authority. This was a capital offence under Jewish law, but when arraigned before the Sanhedrin, the presence of his guards overawed the court and prevented his conviction and sentence. Four years later Herod committed a similar religious crime from which he barely escaped with his life, but he made his way to Rome and put his case to the Senate. The court senators responded by making him a puppet king with the formal title Allied king and front of the Roman people. He then returned to the east at the head of a Roman army of 30,000 infantry and 6000 cavalry, retook Jerusalem and installed a completely new regime. Once in office he used his great political and diplomatic gifts to insure that he always had the backing of whoever was in power in Rome. Herod was the most loyal and reliable of rooms oriental satellite King's, putting down pirates and bandits with ruthless efficiency and packing Rome in all her campaigns and quarrels. he was also the most richly rewarded and with rooms backing he extended the kingdom up to and even beyond its Hasmonean boundaries. He exterminated the Hasmonians, murdering his wife and sons. In showing loyalty to his own search of the firmly however he founded city's name after his father, mother and brother. Here its first erect on assuming power in Jerusalem infinity seven BC was to execute 46 leading members of the Sanhedrin who had sought to uphold the Mosaic law in secular matters. Henceforth, it became a religious court and only he attempted to divorce the high priest from the Crown by turning it into an official post, appointing and dismissing high priests as acts of his prerogative.

Herod modelled himself on Solomon. He aimed to perpetuate his memory by colossal buildings and endowments, by magnificent expenditure in the public interest, and by unprecedented charities. Like Solomon, he both exploited his position on the trade routes to tax commerce and himself engaged in manufacturing. He rented the Cyprus copper mines from the Emperor Augustus, taking half their products. The farm to the taxes of a vast area, sharing the profits with Rome. He built up as a huge personal fortune by confiscating the property of those he declared a state enemies. But the general level of Palestinian prosperity rose during his reign, on account of external peace, internal order and the expanding trade.

The diaspora Jews saw Herod as their best friend. He was also the most generous of patrons. He provided funds for synagogues, libraries, baths and charitable agencies. It was in Herod's day that Jews first became famous for the miniature welfare states they set up among their communities in Alexandra, Rome, Antioch, Babylon and elsewhere, providing for the sick and the poor, for widows and orphans, for visiting the imprisoned and burying the dead. He was also the benefactor of many multi-racial cities throughout the eastern part of the Empire. He backed and financed all the institutions of Greek culture, not least three stadium, for he was an enthusiastic sportsman - a reckless hunter and horseman, a keen javelin - thrower and Archer, a fervent spectator. By his money, his powers of organisation and his energy, he single-handedly rescued the Olympic Games from decay and ensured they were held regularly and in honourable pomp - thus making his name revered in many small Greek islands and cities, which gave him the title of life-president.

For civic and cultural purposes he gave large sums to Athens, Lycea, Pergamum and Sparta. he rebuilt the Temple of Apollo in Rhodes. he re-walled Byblos, built a forum in Tyre and another in Beirut, gave Laodicea an aqueduct, built theatres in Sidon and Damascus, gave gymnasia to Ptolomais and Tripoli and provided a fountain and baths in Ascolon. in Antioch, then the largest city in the near East, he paved the main street, 2.5 miles long, providing column yards the whole length to shelter its citizens from the rain, and finished this great work in polished marble. There were Jews living in nearly all these places and they basked in the reflected glory of their munificent brother-Yahwist.

Herod rebuilt Samaria and named it Sebaste after the Greek name for his patron Augustus. He gave it to a temple, walls and towers, and colonnaded Street. He built another temple, of Egyptian granite, at Baniyas on the coast. Also on the coast, on the site of Straton's Tower, he created a massive new city of Caesarea. According to Josephus, this involved designing an artificial harbour, 'bigger than the Piraeus' in Greece, which Herod's engineers enclosed by planting 'in 20 fathoms of water, blocks of stone which were mostly 50 ft long, 10 broad and nine deep, sometimes even bigger'. This was the foundation of a giant breakwater 200 ft wide. The city, of 200 acres, had a theatre, Market Place and government building, all of limestone, with a fine amphitheatre where splendid games were held every four years. There, Herod set up a gigantic figure of Caesar not inferior, according to Josephus, to the Olympian Zeus, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. This became the natural Roman administrative capital for Judea when Herod's empire broke up at his death. Dotted about Palestine were Herod's fortresses and palaces. These included the Antonia (citadel works) in Jerusalem, erected on top of the Hasmonean fort of Baris, built by Jonathan the Maccabee; but, in true Herodian fashion, the new fort was bigger, stronger and more sumptuous. Others were the Herodium, Cypros near Jericho, called after his mother, Machaerus on the east side of the Dead Sea, and his villa-fortress cut out of the rock at Masada, with its spectacular view over the wilderness.

, the king of Judea, a certain priest named Zacharias, of the priestly division of Abijah. He had a wife [gynē]

Great care was taken in the selection of wives for the Jewish priests. The wife had to be a Levitess (cf. Zechariah here honoured for marrying a descendent of Aaron) or at least a daughter of Israel but it was most commendable to marry one of the priest's line.

of the daughters of Aaron, and her name was Elizabeth. 6They were both righteous [dikaioi] before God, walking blamelessly in all the commandments and ordinances [dikaiōmasin] of the Lord [Kyriou; Heb. Adonai]. 7But they had no child, because Elizabeth was barren, and they both were well advanced in years. 8Now it happened, while he executed the priest's office before God in the order of his division, 9according to the custom [ethos] of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord [kyriou]

Among Greek-speaking Jews Kyriou was the regular title for the God of Israel (used nearly twenty times in little more than a chapter here).

and burn incense. 10The whole multitude of the people were praying outside at the hour of incense. 11An angel of the Lord appeared to him, standing on the right side of the altar of incense. 12Zacharias was troubled when he saw him, and fear fell upon him. 13But the angel said to him, "Don't be afraid, Zacharias, because your request has been heard, and your wife, Elizabeth, will bear you a son, and you shall call his name John. 14You will have joy [chara] and gladness [agalliasis]; and many will rejoice [chairō] at his birth. 15For he will be great in the sight of the Lord, and he will drink no wine nor strong drink. He will be filled with the Holy Spirit, even from his mother's womb. 16He will turn [epistrephō] many of the children of Israel to the Lord, their God. 17He will go before him in the spirit and power of Elijah, 'to turn [epistrepsai] the hearts of the fathers to the children,' and the disobedient [apeitheis] to the wisdom of the just [phronēsei dikaiōn]; to make ready a people prepared for the Lord." 18Zacharias said to the angel, "How can I be sure of this? For I am an old man, and my wife is well advanced in years." 19The angel answered him, "I am Gabriel, who stands in the presence of God. I was sent to speak to you, and to bring you this good news [euangelizō]. 20See [idou], you will be silent and not able to speak, until the day that these things will happen, because you didn't believe [pisteuō] my words, which will be fulfilled in their proper time." 21The people were waiting for Zacharias, and they marveled that he delayed in the temple. 22When he came out, he could not speak to them, and they perceived that he had seen a vision in the temple. He continued making signs to them, and remained mute. 23It happened, when the days of his service [leitourgias] were fulfilled, he departed to his house. 24After these days Elizabeth, his wife, conceived, and she hid herself five months, saying, 25"Thus has the Lord done to me in the days in which he looked [ephoraō] at me, to take away my reproach among men." 26Now in the sixth month, the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee, named Nazareth, 27to a virgin [parthenon] pledged to be married to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. The virgin's [parthenou] name was Mary [Mariam]

Having come to Jerusalem with Paul just prior to Paul's arrest, and being on hand to accompany him from Caesarea to Rome after his two-year custody, Luke would have had opportunity to discuss at length with Mary the content of his first two chapters.

. 28Having come in, the angel said to her, "Rejoice [Chaire], you highly favoured [charitoō] one! The Lord is with you. Blessed are you among women!" 29But when she saw him, she was greatly troubled [diatarassomai] at the saying, and considered [dialogizomai] what kind of salutation this might be. 30The angel said to her, "Don't be afraid, Mary, for you have found favour [charin] with God. 31Consider this [idou]; you will conceive in your womb, and bring forth a son, and will call his name 'Jesus [Iēsoun]

An unexceptional, though splendid, name for a Jewish child meaning 'The Lord is salvation', borne by several persons in the Bible.

.' 32He will be great, and will be called the Son of the Most High [hypsistou; Heb. HaElyon]. The Lord God will give him the throne of his father, David, 33and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever. There will be no end to his Kingdom." 34Mary said to the angel, "How can this be, seeing I am a virgin [andra ou ginōskō]?" 35The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High [hypsistou; Heb. HaElyon] will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God. 36Think of it [idou]; Elizabeth, your relative, also has conceived a son in her old age; and this is the sixth month with her who was called barren. 37For everything spoken by God is possible." 38Mary said, "There [idou], the handmaid [doulē]

Lit. 'a woman slave'.

of the Lord; be it to me according to your word." The angel departed from her. 39Mary arose in those days and went into the hill country with haste, into a city of Judah, 40and entered into the house of Zacharias and greeted Elizabeth. 41It happened, when Elizabeth heard Mary's greeting, that the baby leaped in her womb, and Elizabeth was filled with the Holy Spirit. 42She called out with a loud voice, and said, "Blessed [eulogeō] are you among women, and blessed [eulogēmenos] is the fruit of your womb! 43Why am I so favoured [pothen moi touto], that the mother of my Lord should come to me? 44For think of this [idou]: when the voice of your greeting came into my ears, the baby leaped in my womb for joy [agalliasei]! 45Blessed [makaria] is she who believed [pisteuō], for there will be a fulfillment of the things which have been spoken to her from the Lord!" 46Mary said, "My soul magnifies the Lord. 47My spirit has rejoiced [agalliaō] in God my Savior, 48for he has looked at the humble state of his handmaid [doulēs]. For, think of it [idou]; from now on, all generations will call me blessed [makariousin]. 49For he who is mighty has done great things for me. Holy is his name. 50His mercy is for generations of generations on those who fear him. 51He has shown strength with his arm. He has scattered the proud in the imagination of their hearts. 52He has put down princes from their thrones. And has exalted the lowly. 53He has filled the hungry with good things. He has sent the rich away empty. 54He has given help to Israel, his servant [paidos], that he might remember mercy, 55As he spoke to our fathers, to Abraham and his seed forever." 56Mary stayed with her about three months, and then returned to her house. 57Now the time that Elizabeth should give birth was fulfilled, and she brought forth a son. 58Her neighbors and her relatives heard that the Lord had magnified his mercy towards her, and they rejoiced with her [synchairō]. 59It happened on the eighth day, that they came to circumcise [peritemnō]

According to Hebrew culture, to do the boy's b'rit-milah. The task of naming a child generally fell to the mother. Naming took place near birth in the OT and on the eighth day accompanying circumcision in NT narratives. Revealing character and destiny, personal names might express hopes for the child's future. Changing names revealed a transformation in character or destiny. Names were highly significant and were associated with culturally shared meanings or prevailing conditions at the time of the birth. Names were sometimes chosen to reflect physical characteristics or personality traits. Names of relatives and those including a reference to places were popular in Jesus' day.

the child; and they would have called him Zacharias, after the name of the father. 60His mother answered, "Not so; but he will be called John." 61They said to her, "There is no one among your relatives who is called by this name." 62They made signs to his father, what he would have him called. 63He asked for a writing tablet [pinakidion]

Generally made of beach or fir but occasionally made of ivory or citron-wood, writing tablets were covered with a wax coating in which the letters were scratched out using a stylus made of metal, ivory or bone. One end of the stylus was pointed for writing while the other was smooth, flat and circular for smoothing the surface. The border of the tablet provided a handle for gripping and allowed two tablets to be placed together without smudging. Books could be made up of several tablets combined with a wire binding. Letters, wills, and short documents were all written on tablets, the important ones being sealed to last, cf. Is 30:8; Hab 2:2 and metaphor used in Prov 3:3; Jer 17:1; 2 Cor 3:3.

, and wrote, "His name is John." They all marveled. 64His mouth was opened immediately, and his tongue freed, and he spoke, blessing [eulogeō] God. 65Fear [phobos] came on all who lived around them, and all these sayings were talked about throughout all the hill country of Judea. 66All who heard them laid them up in their heart, saying, "What then will this child be?" The hand of the Lord was with him. 67His father, Zacharias, was filled with the Holy Spirit, and prophesied, saying, 68"Blessed [eulogētos] be the Lord, the God of Israel, for he has visited and worked redemption [lutroomai] for his people; 69and has raised up a horn of salvation for us in the house [paidos] of his servant David 70(as he spoke by the mouth of his holy prophets who have been from of old), 71salvation from our enemies, and from the hand of all who hate [miseō] us; 72to show mercy towards our fathers, to remember his holy covenant [diathēkēs], 73the oath which he spoke to Abraham, our father, 74to grant to us that we, being delivered [rhuomai] out of the hand of our enemies, should serve [latreuō] him without fear, 75In holiness and righteousness [dikaiosynē] before him all the days of our life. 76And you, child, will be called a prophet of the Most High [hypsistou; Heb. HaElyon], for you will go before the face of the Lord to make ready his ways, 77to give knowledge of salvation to his people by the remission [aphesei] of their sins, 78because of the tender [splagchna] mercy of our God, whereby the dawn from on high [hupsous] will visit us, 79to shine on those who sit in darkness and the shadow of death; to guide our feet into the way of peace." 80The child was growing, and becoming strong in spirit, and was in the desert [erēmois] until the day of his public appearance to Israel.

2 1Now it happened in those days, that a decree went out from Caesar Augustus [Kaisaros Augoustou]

Caesar

Gaius Octavianus, later Caesar Augustus, was a Caesar at the age of nineteen and two years later had begun calling himself 'Divi Filius - 'Son of a God'. He was the great-nephew of Julius Caesar and was formally adopted into Casear's will, becoming, by its terms, Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus. As 'Augustus', he would be distinguished even further from the common run of mortals. The title would veil him like a nimbus in a glow of unearthly power. His name was associated with the city which it was his mission to found anew, for Rome was 'founded with august augury' (Ennius, Annals, fragment 155). Portents were said to accompany Octavian's rise to power: as he entered Rome for the first time, a halo in the form of a rainbow had appeared around the sun. Then, three months later, while staging games in honour of his murdered father, a comet had blazed over Rome. It was hailed by spectators as the soul of Caesar ascending to the heavens. Octavian privately regarded the comet as a portent of his own greatness, but publicly agreed, for to become the son of a god was no small promotion, even for Caesar's heir.

that all the world [oikoumenēn] should be enrolled [apograptō]

Census

The importance of the census was defined in Rome. The Villa Publica there was where the hierarchies of Roman society were maintained and reviewed. Every five years a citizen had to register himself there. He also had to declare the name of his wife, the number of his children, his property and his possessions, from his slaves and ready cash to his wife's jewels and clothes. At the census every head of a household would be asked whether he had married for the purpose of having children. It was a citizen's patriotic duty to contribute to his city's future manpower. The state had the right to know everything about everything, including personal tastes and appetites. Intrusive knowledge provided the Republic with its surest foundations for everything which enabled a citizen to be placed by his fellows was defined by the census. Few Romans doubted that if the census were not conducted adequately, then the entire fabric of their society would unravel.

. 2This was the first enrollment made when Quirinius was governor of Syria. 3All went to enroll themselves, everyone to his own city. 4Joseph also went up from Galilee, out of the city of Nazareth, into Judea, to the city of David, which is called Bethlehem, because he was of the house and family of David; 5to enroll himself with Mary, who was pledged to be married to him as wife, being pregnant. 6It happened, while they were there, that the day had come that she should give birth. 7She brought forth her firstborn [prōtotokon]

Cf. 2:23; Col 1:15, 18; Heb 1:6.

son, and she wrapped him in bands of cloth [sparganoō]

Tightly wrapped bandages to hold the newborn's arms and legs still.

, and laid him in a feeding trough [spatnē]

Manger or feeding trough, rock hewn, or more commonly made of masonry. Many homes had a raised floor for the animals and a recessed area for the animals. Mangers were also put in cave stables or other stalls.

, because there was no room for them in the inn [katalymati]

Stopping places for travellers which may have had a walled courtyard and well. People and animals stayed together. The same word is used of a guest room in a private home (Mk 14:4; Lk 22:11). The inn of the Good Samaritan (Lk 10:34) (pandocheion) or public lodging-place was a place of respite and care too.

. 8There were shepherds in the same country staying in the field, and keeping watch by night over their flock. 9Look [idou], an angel of the Lord stood by them, and the glory [doxa]

Heb. Sh'khinah Cf. Ex 16:10; 24:16; Exk 1:28 for LXX background.

of the Lord shone around them, and they were terrified. 10The angel said to them, "Don't be afraid, for consider this [idou]: I bring you good news [euangelizō] of great joy [charan megalēn] which will be to all the people [laō]. 11For there is born to you, this day, in the city of David, a Saviour [sōtēr]

Healer/ Saviour to deliver from sickness and sin. The Greeks reckoned that to save a man and to heal him were fundamentally the same, and that a single word should convey the double meaning.

, who is Christ the Lord [christos Kyrios]. 12This is the sign to you: you will find a baby wrapped in strips of cloth [sparganoō], lying in a feeding trough." 13Suddenly, there was with the angel a multitude of the heavenly army praising [aineō] God, and saying, 14"Glory to God in the highest [hypsistois theo], on earth peace [eirēnē]

Pax Romana

Wherever Roman business interests were threatened, the Republic would intervene - and, if need be, impose direct rule. All provinces or client states were to be docile and obedient, and all were to pay a regular tribute. This, henceforward, was what the pax Romana was to mean.

, good will [eudokia] toward men." 15It happened, when the angels went away from them into the sky, that the shepherds said one to another, "Let's go to Bethlehem, now, and see this thing [to rhēma] that has happened, which the Lord has made known to us." 16They came with haste, and found both Mary and Joseph, and the baby was lying in the feeding trough. 17When they saw it, they publicized widely the saying [rhēmatos]

Has the root meaning of 'saying', though it can mean 'thing' (v 15 and 19).

which was spoken to them about this child. 18All who heard it wondered at the things which were spoken to them by the shepherds. 19But Mary kept all these sayings [ta rhēmata tauta]

Of all her countless memories of her first-born, some were more memorable than others, so that what she kept and pondered can only have been a selection.

, pondering them in her heart. 20The shepherds returned, glorifying [doxazō] and praising [ainountes] God for all the things that they had heard and seen, just as it was told them. 21When eight days were fulfilled for the circumcision of the child, his name was called Jesus, which was given by the angel before he was conceived in the womb. 22When the days of their purification [katharismou] according to the law [nomon; Heb. Torah] of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord 23(as it is written in the law of the Lord, "Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord"), 24and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, "A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." 25See [idou], there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon. This man was righteous [dikaios] and devout, looking for the consolation [paraklōsin]

Messianic yearning

The consolation is meant to be understood in terms of the coming of the Messiah. In the years following Caesar's assassination, the Roman people had found themselves storm-racked and adrift. Virgil, Eclogues, 4.4-9., wrote in 40BC a kind of vague prophetic longing of the kind that Greeks or Jews had long indulged in:

Now comes the crowing age foretold in the Sibyl's songs, A great new cycle, bred of time, begins again. Now virginal Justice and the golden age returns, Now its first-born is sent down from high heaven. With the birth of this boy, the generations of iron will pass, And a generation of gold will inherit all the world.

Whatever Virgil's talk of messianic babies sent from heaven, for the Romans there were clearly only two candidates for the role of saviour - Anthony and Octavian (Caesar Augustus), twin masters of the Roman world and undistracted rivals. The East, bled white by successive sides in Roman civil wars, yearned for a new beginning even more passionately than did Italy. Visions of apocalypse still swirled through the imaginings of Greeks and Egyptians, Syrians and Jews. No one who was not an enemy of Rome had ever turned such hopes to his advantage. To present oneself as the saviour-god long promised by eastern oracles: no more monstrous crime, for a citizen of the Republic, could possibly have been imagined. To the Romans, the Eastern superstition of worshipping their sovereigns as divine appeared contemptible. All the same, their magistrates had long been awarded their own elevated places in the pantheons of the subjects: their praises had been wafted to the heavens upon dense clouds of incense, their images placed in the temples of strange gods.

of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was on him. 26It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ [christos Kyriou]. 27He came in the Spirit into the temple. When the parents brought in the child, Jesus, that they might do concerning him according to the custom of the law, 28then he received him into his arms, and blessed [eulogeō] God, and said, 29"Now you are releasing [apoluō] your servant [doulon], Master [despota], according to your word [kata to rhēma], in peace; 30for my eyes have seen your salvation, 31which you have prepared [hetoimazō] before the face of all peoples; 32a light for revelation [apokalypsin] to the nations [ethnōn], and the glory of your people Israel." 33Joseph and his mother were marvelling [thaumazō] at the things which were spoken concerning him, 34and Simeon blessed [eulogeō] them, and said to Mary, his mother, "See [idou], this child is set [keimai] for the falling and the rising [anastasin] of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. 35Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts [dialogismoi] of many hearts may be revealed." 36There was one Anna, a prophetess [prophētis]

According to Jewish tradition, only seven prophetesses have prophesied to Israel: Sarah, Miriam, Deborah, Hannah, Abigail, Huldah, and Esther.

, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, 37and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didn't depart from the temple, worshipping [latreuō] with fastings and petitions night and day. 38Coming up at that very hour, she gave thanks [anthomologeomai] to the Lord, and spoke of him to all those who were looking for redemption [lutrōsin] in Jerusalem. 39When they had accomplished all things that were according to the law of the Lord, they returned into Galilee, to their own city, Nazareth. 40The child was growing, and was becoming strong in spirit, being filled with wisdom [sophia], and the grace [charis] of God was upon him. 41His parents went every year to Jerusalem at the feast of the Passover [pascha; Heb. Pesach]. 42When he was twelve years old, they went up to Jerusalem according to the custom [ethos] of the feast, 43and when they had fulfilled the days, as they were returning, the boy Jesus stayed behind in Jerusalem. Joseph and his mother didn't know it, 44but supposing him to be in the company, they went a day's [hemeras]

A day's journey was between eighteen and thirty miles but the first day was shorter, the caravan stopping three to eight miles from the place of departure. Traditionally the stopping place north of Jerusalem was Beer (Beeroth), modern day el-Bireh on the way to Nablus, a three-hour journey. We need not deduce any slackness on the part of Jesus' parents for missing him. The men would travel back together in one company and the women in a separate one. Joseph would think Jesus was with Mary. Mary would think he was with Joseph. When they met in the evening to partake of their meal and camp for the night, having done perhaps a quarter of their eighty-mile journey, Jesus could nowhere be found.

journey, and they looked for him among their relatives and acquaintances. 45When they didn't find him, they returned to Jerusalem, looking for him. 46It happened after three days they found him in the temple [hierō]

Religious Education

In their battle against Greek education, pious Jews had begun, from the end of the second century BC, to develop a national system of education. To the old scribal schools were gradually added a network of local schools where, in theory at least, all Jewish boys were taught at the Torah. This development was of great importance in the spread and consolidation of the synagogue, in the birth of Pharisaism as a movement rooted in popular education, and eventually in the rise of the rabbinate. The education provided in these schools was entirely religious, rejecting any form of knowledge outside the law. They followed ancient traditions that God had given to Moses in addition to the written law, an Oral Law, by which learned Elders could interpret and supplement the sacred commands.

Teachers of the law met their disciples either in the cloisters (cf. Mt 24:1), or in the synagogue within the Temple enclosure. Anyone could question the teachers on points of the law after the services, according to the rabbinic teaching methods.

, sitting in the midst of the teachers, both listening to them, and asking them questions. 47All who heard him were amazed [existēmi] at his understanding [synesai] and his answers [apokrisesin]. 48When they saw him, they were astonished, and his mother said to him, "Son [teknon], why have you treated us this way? Look [idou], your father and I were anxiously looking for you." 49He said to them, "Why were you looking for me? Didn't you know that I must be in my Father's house?" 50They didn't understand the saying which he spoke to them. 51And he went down with them, and came to Nazareth. He was subject to them, and his mother kept [diatēreō] all these sayings [ta rhēmata] in her heart. 52And Jesus increased in wisdom and stature, and in favour [chariti] with God and men.

3 1Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of the region of Ituraea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias tetrarch of Abilene, 2in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas [Anna kai Kaïapha]

Annas and Caiaphas and the other Sadducees were deep in political intrigue, for Palestine had become part of the Roman Empire, yet the Sadducees held sway over the people. Annas had been removed from the high priesthood, but held on to power. He was an astute, unscrupulous diplomatist. With Caiaphas, the two grew rich through the taxes they levied on the people, apart from the Roman taxes. A third of a man's livelihood was swallowed up in taxes. Josephus records that 20,000 priests ministered in the temple. Some would serve for only one week in the year, but they would take their wages every week. As controllers of the temple market, Annas and Caiaphas raked in millions of shekels, determining the rate of exchange, till their avarice, corruption, and vicious luxury, their gluttony and oppression, were a byword among the people. All this was carried on in the name of religion.

, the word [rhēma] of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness [erēmō]. 3He came into all the region around the Jordan, preaching [kēryssō]

John the Baptist's mission

John there Baptist lived and worked for the most part in Galilee and the Peraea, territory which was now overwhelmingly Jewish but which had been annexed to Judaea by fire and a sword- and often forcible conversion - in Maccabee times. It was an area or both of fierce orthodoxy and diverse heterodoxy, and of religious and political ferment. Much of it had been devastated in the risings immediately after Herod's death and in 06 AD his son Herod Antipas, whom the Romans made Governor, tried to rebuild it. He created a new administrative centre in the Greek style at Tiberias on Lake Galilee, and to people it he forced Jews from the surrounding countryside to give up their farms and live there. He drafted in the poor and ex-slaves too. His Judaism was suspect because he had a Samaritan mother; and he broke mosaic law by marrying his brother's wife.

John the Baptist's mission centred on two books - Isaiah and Enoch. He was not a hermit, a separatist or an excluder. On the contrary: he preached to all Jews that the day of reckoning was coming. His task was to proclaim the coming of the end of days and the advent of the Messiah, who would be the Son of man as described by Enoch.

sthe baptism of repentance [metanoias] for remission [aphesin] of sins. 4As it is written in the book of the words of Isaiah the prophet, "The voice of one crying [boōntos] in the wilderness [erēmō], 'Make ready [eutheias] the way of the Lord. Make his paths straight [eutheian]. 5Every valley will be filled. Every mountain and hill will be brought low. The crooked will become straight, and the rough ways smooth. 6All flesh [pasa sarx] will see [horaō] God's salvation.'" 7He said therefore to the multitudes who went out to be baptized by him, "You offspring of vipers, who warned you to flee from the wrath to come? 8Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance [metanoias], and don't begin to say among yourselves, 'We have Abraham for our father;' for I tell you that God is able to raise [egeirō] up children to Abraham from these stones! 9Even now the axe also lies at the root of the trees. Every tree therefore that doesn't bring forth good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire." 10The multitudes asked him, "What then must we do?" 11He answered them, "He who has two coats [chitōnas], let him give to him who has none. He who has food, let him do likewise." 12Tax collectors also came to be baptized, and they said to him, "Teacher, what must we do?" 13He said to them, "Collect no more than that which is appointed to you." 14Soldiers also asked him, saying, "What about us? What must we do?" He said to them, "Extort from no one by violence, neither accuse anyone wrongfully. Be content with your wages." 15As the people were in expectation, and all men reasoned in their hearts concerning John, whether perhaps he was the Christ, 16John answered them all, "I indeed baptize you with water, but he comes who is mightier than I, the latchet of whose sandals I am not worthy [hikanos] to loosen. He will baptize you in the Holy Spirit and fire, 17whose fan is in his hand, and he will thoroughly cleanse [diakathairō] his threshing floor, and will gather the wheat into his barn; but he will burn up the chaff with unquenchable fire." 18Then with many other exhortations [parakaleō] he preached good news [euangelizō] to the people, 19but Herod the tetrarch, being reproved [elenchō] by him for Herodias, his brother's wife, and for all the evil [ponērōn] things which Herod had done, 20added this also to them all, that he shut up John in prison. 21Now it happened, when all the people were baptized, Jesus also had been baptized, and was praying. The sky was opened, 22and the Holy Spirit descended in a bodily form as a dove on him; and a voice came out of the sky, saying "You are my beloved [agapaō] Son. In you I am well pleased [eudokeō]." 23Jesus himself, when he began to teach, was about thirty years old, being the son (as was supposed) of Joseph, the son of Heli, 24the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, the son of Melchi, the son of Jannai, the son of Joseph, 25the son of Mattathias, the son of Amos, the son of Nahum, the son of Esli, the son of Naggai, 26the son of Maath, the son of Mattathias, the son of Semein, the son of Joseph, the son of Judah, 27the son of Joanan, the son of Rhesa, the son of Zerubbabel, the son of Shealtiel, the son of Neri, 28the son of Melchi, the son of Addi, the son of Cosam, the son of Elmodam, the son of Er, 29the son of Jose, the son of Eliezer, the son of Jorim, the son of Matthat, the son of Levi, 30the son of Simeon, the son of Judah, the son of Joseph, the son of Jonan, the son of Eliakim, 31the son of Melea, the son of Menan, the son of Mattatha, the son of Nathan, the son of David, 32the son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon, the son of Nahshon, 33the son of Amminadab, the son of Aram, the son of Hezron, the son of Perez, the son of Judah, 34the son of Jacob, the son of Isaac, the son of Abraham, the son of Terah, the son of Nahor, 35the son of Serug, the son of Reu, the son of Peleg, the son of Eber, the son of Shelah, 36the son of Cainan, the son of Arphaxad, the son of Shem, the son of Noah, the son of Lamech, 37the son of Methuselah, the son of Enoch, the son of Jared, the son of Mahalaleel, the son of Cainan, 38the son of Enos, the son of Seth, the son of Adam, the son of God.

4 1Jesus, full of the Holy Spirit, returned from the Jordan, and was led [agō] by the Spirit into the wilderness [erēmō] 2for forty days, being tempted [peirazō] by the devil [diabolou]. He ate nothing in those days. Afterward, when they were completed, he was hungry. 3The devil said to him, "If you are the Son of God, command this stone to become bread." 4Jesus answered him, saying, "It is written, 'Man shall not live [zaō] by bread alone, but by every word of God.'" 5The devil, leading [anagō] him up on a high mountain, showed him all the kingdoms of the world [oikoumenēs ho diabolos] in a moment of time. 6The devil said to him, "I will give you all this authority, and their glory [doxan], for it has been delivered to me; and I give it to whomever I want. 7If you therefore will worship [proskyneō] before me, it will all be yours." 8Jesus answered him, "Get behind me Satan! For it is written, 'You shall worship [proskynēseis] the Lord your God, and you shall serve [latreuō] him only.'" 9He led him to Jerusalem, and set him on the pinnacle of the temple, and said to him, "If you are the Son of God, cast yourself down from here, 10for it is written [graphō Heb. in the Tanakh], 'He will put his angels in charge of you, to guard [diaphylassō] you;' 11and, 'On their hands they will bear you up, lest perhaps you dash your foot against a stone.'" 12Jesus answering, said to him, "It has been said, 'You shall not tempt [ekpeirazō] the Lord your God.'" 13When the devil had completed every temptation [peirasmon], he departed [aphistēmi] from him until another time. 14Jesus returned in the power of the Spirit into Galilee, and news about him spread through all the surrounding area. 15He taught in their synagogues, being glorified [doxazō] by all. 16He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read [anaginōskō]

Readers were expected to stand to read the law and the prophets. Priests, Levites and common Israelites were allowed to read the Scriptures publicly. Every Sabbath, seven readers stood up: a priest, Levite, and five Israelites.

. 17The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written, 18"The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed [chriō] me to preach good news [euangelizō] to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, to proclaim [kēryssō] release [apostellō] to the captives, recovering of sight to the blind, to deliver those who are crushed, 19and to proclaim [kēryxai] the acceptable [dekton] year of the Lord." 20He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant [hyperetē Heb. shammash]

The attendant had charge of the furniture and building, made things ready for the services and summoned people at the appointed time. It was also his duty to call out the names of those whom the ruler of the synagogue selected to read the lesson of the day, hand them the scroll and retrieve it afterwards. Jesus now sits down, adopting the customary teaching posture of a rabbi instructing his disciples.

, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 21He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." 22All testified [martyreō] about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son?" 23He said to them, "Doubtless you will tell me this parable, 'Physician [Iatre], heal [therapeuō] yourself! Whatever we have heard done at Capernaum, do also here in your hometown.'" 24He said, "Most certainly I tell you [amēn legō hymin], no prophet is acceptable [dektos] in his hometown. 25But truly I tell you, there were many widows in Israel in the days of Elijah, when the sky was shut up three years and six months, when a great famine came over all the land. 26Elijah was sent to none of them, except to Zarephath, in the land of Sidon, to a woman who was a widow. 27There were many lepers [leproi] in Israel in the time of Elisha the prophet, yet not one of them was cleansed [katharizō], except Naaman, the Syrian." 28They were all filled with wrath in the synagogue, as they heard these things. 29They rose up, threw him out of the city, and led [ekballō] him to the brow of the hill [ophrous tou orous] that their city was built on, that they might throw him off the cliff. 30But he, passing through the midst of them, went his way. 31He came down to Capernaum, a city of Galilee. He was teaching them on the Sabbath day, 32and they were astonished at his teaching, for his word [logos] was with authority. 33In the synagogue there was a man who had a spirit of an unclean [akathartou] demon, and he cried out with a loud voice, 34saying, "Ah [Ea]! what have we to do with you [ti hēmin kai soi], Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy [apollymi] us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God!" 35Jesus rebuked him, saying, "Be silent [phimoō], and come out of him!" When the demon had thrown him down in their midst, he came out of him, having done him no harm. 36Amazement came on all, and they spoke together, one with another, saying, "What is this word? For with authority and power he commands the unclean [akathartois] spirits, and they come out!" 37News about him went out into every place of the surrounding region. 38He rose up from the synagogue, and entered into Simon's house. Simon's mother-in-law was afflicted with a great fever [pyretō megalō], and they begged him for her. 39He stood over her, and rebuked [epitimaō] the fever [pyretō]; and it left her. Immediately she rose up and served them. 40When the sun was setting, all those who had any sick with various diseases brought them to him; and he laid his hands on every one of them, and healed them. 41Demons also came out from many, crying out, and saying, "You are the Christ, the Son of God!" Rebuking [epitimaō] them, he didn't allow them to speak, because they knew that he was the Christ. 42When it was day, he departed and went into an uninhabited [erēmon] place, and the multitudes looked for him, and came to him, and held on to him, so that he wouldn't go away from them. 43But he said to them, "I must preach the good news [euangelizō] of the Kingdom of God to the other cities also. For this reason I have been sent." 44He was preaching [kēryssō] in the synagogues of Galilee.

5 1Now it happened, while the multitude pressed on him and heard the word of God, that he was standing by the lake of Gennesaret. 2He saw two boats standing by the lake, but the fishermen had gone out of them, and were washing their nets. 3He entered into one of the boats, which was Simon's, and asked him to put out a little from the land. He sat down and taught the multitudes from the boat. 4When he had finished speaking, he said to Simon, "Put out into the deep, and let down your nets for a catch." 5Simon answered him, "Master, we worked all night, and took nothing; but at your word I will let down the net." 6When they had done this, they caught a great multitude of fish, and their net was breaking. 7They beckoned to their partners in the other boat, that they should come and help them. They came, and filled both boats, so that they began to sink. 8But Simon Peter, when he saw it, fell down at Jesus' knees, saying, "Depart from me, for I am a sinful man, Lord." 9For he was amazed [thambos … periechō], and all who were with him, at the catch of fish which they had caught; 10and so also were James and John, sons of Zebedee, who were partners [koinōnoi] with Simon. Jesus said to Simon, "Don't be afraid. From now on you will be catching [zōgreō] people alive." 11When they had brought their boats to land, they left everything, and followed [akoloutheō] him. 12It happened, while he was in one of the cities, think of this [idou], there was a man full of leprosy [lepras]

'Lepras' covered a variety of skin complaints for which the social penalties were the same. The leper had not just lost his health; he had lost his family, friends, home and livelihood.

. When he saw Jesus, he fell on his face, and begged him, saying, "Lord, if you want to, you can make me clean [katharisai]." 13He stretched out his hand, and touched him, saying, "I want to. Be made clean [katharisthēti]." Immediately the leprosy [lepra] left him. 14He commanded him to tell no one, "But go your way, and show yourself to the priest, and offer for your cleansing [katharismou] according to what Moses commanded, for a testimony to them." 15But the report concerning him spread much more, and great multitudes came together to hear, and to be healed by him of their infirmities. 16But he withdrew himself into the desert [erēmois], and prayed. 17It happened on one of those days, that he was teaching; and there were Pharisees and teachers of the law [nomodidaskaloi] sitting by, who had come out of every village of Galilee, Judea, and Jerusalem. The power of the Lord was with him to heal [iaomai] them. 18Consider it [idou]: men brought a paralyzed man on a cot [klinēs], and they sought to bring him in to lay before Jesus. 19Not finding a way to bring him in because of the multitude, they went up to the housetop, and let him down through the tiles [keramōn]

A simple Galilean home would have had two rooms and a loft where children slept. There were two doors out of the largest room, where children played and guests were welcomed. One led out to a stable where cows, donkeys, goats and chicken were kept in winter. The other led to a small room behind the house used to store hay for the animals' winter feed. Its wooden tiles were easily removed so the hay could be pitched in from the outside. Jesus, as an honoured guest, would have been seated against the rear wall of the house next to the storage room when the men removed the roof tiles and lowered their paralysed friend to the Master's feet.

with his cot into the midst before Jesus. 20Seeing their faith [pistin], he said to him, "Man [anthrōpe], your sins are forgiven [aphiēmi] you." 21The scribes [grammateis] and the Pharisees began to reason, saying, "Who is this that speaks blasphemies [blasphēmias]? Who can forgive [apheinai] sins, but God alone?" 22But Jesus, perceiving their thoughts, answered them, "Why are you reasoning [dialogizomai] so in your hearts? 23Which is easier to say, 'Your sins are forgiven [apheōntai] you;' or to say, 'Arise and walk?' 24But that you may know that the Son of Man has authority on earth to forgive [aphienai] sins" (he said to the paralyzed man), "I tell you, arise, and take up your cot [klinidion], and go to your house." 25Immediately he rose up before them, and took up that which he was laying on, and departed to his house, glorifying [doxazō] God. 26Amazement took hold on all, and they glorified [edoxazon] God. They were filled with fear, saying, "We have seen strange things [paradoxa sēmeron] today." 27After these things he went out, and saw a tax collector named Levi sitting at the tax office, and said to him, "Follow [akoloutheō] me!" 28He left everything, and rose up and followed [ēkolouthei] him. 29Levi made a great feast for him in his house. There was a great crowd of tax collectors and others who were reclining with them. 30Their scribes [grammateis] and the Pharisees murmured against his disciples, saying, "Why do you eat and drink with the tax collectors and sinners?" 31Jesus answered them, "Those who are healthy [chreian] have no need for a physician, but those who are sick [kakōs] do. 32I have not come to call [kaleō] the righteous [dikaious], but sinners to repentance [metanoian]." 33They said to him, "Why do John's disciples often fast and pray, likewise also the disciples of the Pharisees, but yours eat and drink?" 34He said to them, "Can you make the friends of the bridegroom fast, while the bridegroom is with them? 35But the days will come when the bridegroom will be taken away from them. Then they will fast in those days." 36He also told a parable [parabolēn] to them. "No one puts a piece from a new garment on an old garment, or else he will tear the new, and also the piece from the new will not match the old. 37No one puts new wine into old wineskins, or else the new wine will burst the skins, and it will be spilled, and the skins will be destroyed. 38But new wine must be put into fresh wineskins, and both are preserved. 39No man having drunk old wine immediately desires new, for he says, 'The old is better.'"

6 1Now it happened on the second Sabbath [Sabbatō]

The Sabbath had come to stand for the way things were to be in the Messianic age (cf. Is 58:13f). In reality however it was hedged around with so many laws that it became a misery.

after the first, that he was going through the grain fields. His disciples plucked the heads of grain, and ate, rubbing them in their hands. 2But some of the Pharisees said to them, "Why do you do that which is not lawful [ouk exestin] to do on the Sabbath day?" 3Jesus, answering them, said, "Haven't you read what David did when he was hungry, he, and those who were with him; 4how he entered into the house of God, and took and ate the show [protheseōs] bread, and gave also to those who were with him, which is not lawful to eat except for the priests alone?" 5He said to them, "The Son of Man is lord of the Sabbath." 6It also happened on another Sabbath that he entered into the synagogue and taught. There was a man there, and his right hand was withered [xēra]. 7The scribes [grammateis] and the Pharisees watched him, to see whether he would heal on the Sabbath, that they might find an accusation against him. 8But he knew their thoughts [dialogizomai]; and he said to the man who had the withered [xēran] hand, "Rise up, and stand in the middle." He arose and stood. 9Then Jesus said to them, "I will ask you something: Is it lawful on the Sabbath to do good [agathopoieō], or to do harm [kakopoieō]? To save a life [psychēn sōzō], or to kill [apollymi]?" 10He looked around at them all, and said to the man, "Stretch out your hand." He did, and his hand was restored [apokathistēmi] as sound as the other. 11But they were filled with rage, and talked with one another [dialaleō] about what they might do to Jesus. 12It happened in these days, that he went out to the mountain to pray, and he continued all night in prayer to God. 13When it was day, he called his disciples, and from them he chose [eklegō] twelve, whom he also named apostles: 14Simon, whom he also named Peter; Andrew, his brother; James; John; Philip; Bartholomew; 15Matthew; Thomas; James, the son of Alphaeus; Simon, who was called the Zealot; 16Judas the son of James; and Judas Iscariot, who also became a traitor [prodotēs]. 17He came down with them, and stood on a level place, with a crowd of his disciples, and a great number of the people from all Judea and Jerusalem, and the sea coast of Tyre and Sidon, who came to hear him and to be healed of their diseases; 18as well as those who were troubled [enochleō] by unclean [akathartōn] spirits, and they were being healed [therapeuō]. 19All the multitude sought to touch him, for power came out from him and healed [iaomai] them all. 20He lifted up his eyes to his disciples, and said, "Blessed [makarioi] are you who are poor [ptōchoi], for yours is the Kingdom of God. 21Blessed [makarioi] are you who hunger now, for you will be filled. Blessed [makarioi] are you who weep now, for you will laugh. 22Blessed [makarioi] are you when men shall hate [miseō] you, and when they shall exclude [aphorizō] and mock [oneidozō] you, and throw out [ekballō] your name as evil [ponēron], for the Son of Man's sake. 23Rejoice [chairō] in that day, and leap for joy, for think of it [idou]: your reward [misthos] is great [polys] in heaven, for their fathers did the same thing to the prophets.24"But woe to you who are rich! For you have received your consolation. 25Woe to you, you who are full now, for you will be hungry. Woe to you who laugh now, for you will mourn and weep. 26Woe, when men speak well [kalōs] of you, for their fathers did the same thing to the false prophets. 27"But I tell you who hear: love [akouō] your enemies, do good [kalōs] to those who hate [miseō] you, 28bless [eulogeō] those who curse you, and pray for those who mistreat [epēreazō] you. 29To him who strikes you on the cheek, offer also the other; and from him who takes away your cloak [himation], don't withhold your coat [chitōna] also. 30Give to everyone who asks you, and don't ask him who takes away your goods to give them back again. 31"As you would like people to do to you, do exactly so to them. 32If you love [agapate] those who love [agapōntas] you, what credit [charis] is that to you? For even sinners [amartōloi] love those who love [agapōnatas agapōsin] them. 33If you do good [agathopoieō] to those who do good [agathopoieō] to you, what credit [charis] is that to you? For even sinners [hamartōloi] do the same. 34If you lend to those from whom you hope to receive, what credit [charis] is that to you? Even sinners [hamartōloi] lend to sinners [hamartōlois], to receive back as much. 35But love [agapaō] your enemies, and do good [agathopoieite], and lend, expecting nothing back; and your reward [misthos] will be great [polys], and you will be children of the Most High [hypsistou]; for he is kind toward the unthankful and evil [ponērous]. 36Therefore be merciful, even as your Father is also merciful. 37Don't judge [krinō], and you won't be judged [krithēte]. Don't condemn [katadikazō], and you won't be condemned [katadikasthēte]. Set free [apoluō], and you will be set free [apoluthēsesthe]. 38"Give, and it will be given to you: good measure [metron kalon], pressed down, shaken together, and running over, will be given to you [didōmi]

The folds of the garment as they extend over the girdle or belt used as a receptacle like a large pocket. Used by parents and shepherds in Nu 11:12 and 2 Sam 12:3; Is 40:11.

. For with the same measure [metrō] you measure [metreō] it will be measured [metreō] back to you." 39He spoke a parable [parabolēn] to them. "Can the blind guide the blind? Won't they both fall into a pit? 40A disciple is not above his teacher, but everyone when he is fully trained [katartizō] will be like his teacher. 41Why do you see the speck of chaff that is in your brother's [adelphou] eye, but don't consider the beam that is in your own eye? 42Or how can you tell your brother [adelphō], 'Brother [adelphe], let me remove [aphes ekballō] the speck of chaff that is in your eye,' when you yourself don't see the beam that is in your own eye? You hypocrite [hypokrita]! First remove the beam from your own eye, and then you can see clearly to remove the speck of chaff that is in your brother's [adelphou] eye. 43For there is no good [kalon] tree that brings forth rotten [sapron] fruit; nor again a rotten [sapron] tree that brings forth good [kalon] fruit. 44For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 45The good [agathos] man out of the good [agathou] treasure of his heart brings out that which is good [agathon], and the evil [ponēros] man out of the evil [ponērou] treasure of his heart brings out that which is evil [ponēron], for out of the abundance of the heart, his mouth speaks. 46"Why do you call me, 'Lord, Lord,' and don't do the things which I say? 47Everyone who comes to me, and hears my words, and does them, I will show you who he is like. 48He is like a man building a house, who dug and went deep, and laid a foundation on the rock. When a flood arose, the stream broke against that house, and could not shake it, because it was founded on the rock. 49But he who hears, and doesn't do, is like a man who built a house on the earth without a foundation, against which the stream broke, and immediately it fell, and the ruin of that house was great."

7 1After he had finished speaking in the hearing of the people, he entered into Capernaum. 2A certain centurion's servant [doulos], who was dear to him, was sick and at the point of death. 3When he heard about Jesus, he sent to him elders [presbyterous] of the Jews, asking him to come and save [diasōsē] his servant [doulon]. 4When they came to Jesus, they begged him earnestly, saying, "He is worthy for you to do this for him, 5for he loves [agapaō] our nation, and he built our synagogue for us." 6Jesus went with them. When he was now not far from the house, the centurion sent friends to him, saying to him, "Lord, don't trouble yourself, for I am not worthy [ou…hikanos] for you to come under my roof. 7Therefore I didn't even think myself worthy to come to you; but say the word, and my servant [pais]

Roman childhood

Cf. Jn 4:51 translated 'boy'. Nine days after the birth of a baby he would have been named. Evil spirits would have been swept out of the house with a broom. The boy's future would have been read in the behaviour of passing birds. A golden good-luck charm, the bulla, would have been placed around the baby's neck, to stay there until he came of age and became a full citizen. Newborns were swaddled tightly to mould them into the form of adults, their features were kneaded and pummeled. There was a savage regime of dieting and cold baths. Only two out of three children survived their first year, and under 50 per cent went on to reach puberty. The deaths of children were constant factors of family life. Parents were encouraged to respond to such losses with flinty calm. The younger the child, the less emotion would be shown. Yet evidence from tombstones, poetry and private correspondence suggests the depth of love that Roman parents could feel. The assumption was that the sterner the parents, the more loving they must have been. The Romans believed that girls had to be moulded just as much as boys. Physical as well as intellectual exercises were prescribed for both. A boy trained his body for warfare, a girl for childbirth, but both were pushed to the point of exhaustion. To the Romans, self-knowledge came from appreciating the limits of one's endurance. It was only by testing what these might be that a child could be prepared for adult life. No wonder that Roman children appear to have had little time for play. Far fewer toys have been found dating from the Republic than from the period that followed its collapse, when the pressure to raise good citizens had begun to decline. Girls nevertheless had dolls, since it was the custom to dedicate these to Venus as part of the rituals of marriage. Boys played obsessively with spinning tops. Dice appear to have been a universal mania.

The son who failed to equal the rank and achievements of his ancestors, the daughter who neglected to influence her husband in the interests of her father or her brothers - both brought public shame on their family.

will be healed [iaomai]. 8For I also am a man placed under authority, having under myself soldiers. I tell this one, 'Go!' and he goes; and to another, 'Come!' and he comes; and to my servant [doulō], 'Do this,' and he does it." 9When Jesus heard these things, he marveled at him, and turned and said to the multitude who followed him, "I tell you, I have not found such great faith [pistin], no, not in Israel." 10Those who were sent, returning to the house, found that the servant who had been sick was well [doulon hugiainō]. 11It happened soon afterwards, that he went to a city called Nain. Many of his disciples, along with a great multitude, went with him. 12Now when he drew near to the gate of the city, see [idou], one who was dead [thnēskō]

The funeral procession would include relatives, friends and servants (cf. Am 6:10). Mourning rituals include shaving the head and beard, tearing clothes, wearing sackcloth, loud crying, dusting the head and sitting in ashes. Forbidden practices are metioned in Lev 19:27-28; 21:5; Dt 14:1.

was carried out, the only son of his mother, and she was a widow. Many people of the city were with her. 13When the Lord saw her, he had compassion on her, and said to her, "Don't cry." 14He came near and touched the coffin, and the bearers stood still. He said, "Young man, I tell you, arise!" 15He who was dead sat up, and began to speak. And he gave him to his mother. 16Fear took hold of all, and they glorified [doxazō] God, saying, "A great prophet has arisen among us!" and, "God has visited his people!" 17This report went out concerning him in the whole of Judea, and in all the surrounding region. 18The disciples of John told him about all these things. 19John, calling to himself two of his disciples, sent them to Jesus, saying, "Are you the one who is coming, or should we look for another?" 20When the men had come to him, they said, "John the Baptizer has sent us to you, saying, 'Are you he who comes, or should we look for another?'" 16They were all filled with awe and praised God. "A great prophet has appeared among us," they said. "God has come to help his people." 17This news about Jesus spread throughout Judea and the surrounding country. 18John's disciples told him about all these things. Calling two of them, 19he sent them to the Lord to ask, "Are you the one who was to come, or should we expect someone else?" 20When the men came to Jesus, they said, "John the Baptist sent us to you to ask, Are you the one who was to come, or should we expect someone else?' " 21In that hour he cured many of diseases and plagues and evil [ponērōn] spirits; and to many who were blind he gave sight. 22Jesus answered them, "Go and tell John the things which you have seen and heard: that the blind receive their sight, the lame walk, the lepers [leproi] are cleansed [katharizō], the deaf hear, the dead are raised up, and the poor have good news preached [ptōchoi euangelizō] to them. 23Blessed [makarios] is he who is not offended by me." 24When John's messengers [angelōn] had departed, he began to tell the multitudes about John, "What did you go out into the wilderness to see? A reed shaken by the wind? 25But what did you go out to see? A man clothed in soft clothing? Think on it [idou], those who are gorgeously dressed, and live delicately, are in kings' courts. 26But what did you go out to see? A prophet? Yes, I tell you, and much more than a prophet. 27This is he of whom it is written, 'See [idou], I send my messenger [angelon] before your face, who will prepare your way before you.' 28"For I tell you, among those who are born of women there is not a greater prophet than John the Baptizer, yet he who is least [mikroteros] in the Kingdom of God is greater [meizōn] than he." 29When all the people and the tax collectors heard this, they declared God to be just, having been baptized with John's baptism. 30But the Pharisees and the lawyers [momikoi] rejected [atheteō] the counsel [boulēn] of God, not being baptized by him themselves. 31"To what then will I liken the people of this generation? What are they like? 32They are like children who sit in the marketplace [agora], and call one to another, saying, 'We piped to you, and you didn't dance. We mourned, and you didn't weep.' 33For John the Baptizer came neither eating bread nor drinking wine, and you say, 'He has a demon.' 34The Son of Man has come eating and drinking, and you say, 'Look [idou], a gluttonous man, and a drunkard; a friend of tax collectors and sinners [hamartōlōn]!' 35Wisdom is justified [dikaioō] by all her children." 36One of the Pharisees invited him to eat with him. He entered into the Pharisee's house, and sat at the table. 37Consider this [idou], a woman in the city who was a sinner, when she knew that he was reclining in the Pharisee's house, she brought an alabaster jar of ointment. 38Standing behind at his feet weeping, she began to wet his feet with her tears, and she wiped them with the hair of her head, kissed his feet [podas]

Feet kissing was a mark of affection and reverence. It was also the practice of supplicants.

, and anointed them with the ointment. 39Now when the Pharisee who had invited him saw it, he said to himself, "This man, if he were a prophet, would have perceived who and what kind of woman this is who touches him, that she is a sinner." 40Jesus answered him, "Simon, I have something to tell you." He said, "Teacher, say on." 41"A certain lender [danistē] had two debtors [chreopheiletai]. The one owed [opheilō] five hundred denarii [dēnaria], and the other fifty. 42When they couldn't pay, he forgave [charizomai] them both. Which of them therefore will love [agapaō] him most?" 43Simon answered, "He, I suppose, to whom he forgave [echarisato] the most." He said to him, "You have judged [krinō] correctly." 44Turning to the woman, he said to Simon, "Do you see this woman? I entered into your house, and you gave me no water for my feet, but she has wet my feet with her tears, and wiped them with the hair of her head. 45You gave me no kiss, but she, since the time I came in, has not ceased to kiss my feet. 46You didn't anoint my head with oil, but she has anointed my feet with ointment. 47Therefore I tell you, her sins, which are many, are forgiven [aphiēmi], for she loved [agapaō] much. But to whom little is forgiven [aphietai], the same loves [agapa] little." 48He said to her, "Your sins are forgiven [apeōntai]." 49Those who sat at the table with him began to say to themselves, "Who is this who even forgives [aphiēsin] sins?" 50He said to the woman, "Your faith [pistis] has saved [sesōken] you. Go in peace."

8 1It happened soon afterwards, that he went about through cities and villages, preaching [kēryssō] and bringing the good news [euangelizō] of the Kingdom [basileian] of God. With him were the twelve, 2and certain women who had been healed of evil [ponērōn] spirits and infirmities: Mary [Maria] who was called Magdalene [Magdalēnē], from whom seven demons had gone out; 3and Joanna [Iōanna], the wife of Chuzas [Chouza], Herod's steward [epitropou Hrōdou]; Susanna [Sousanna]; and many others; who served [diakoneō] them from their possessions. 4When a great multitude came together, and people from every city were coming to him, he spoke by a parable [parabolēs]. 5"The farmer went out to sow his seed. As he sowed, some fell along the road, and it was trampled under foot, and the birds of the sky devoured it. 6Other seed fell on the rock, and as soon as it grew, it withered away, because it had no moisture. 7Other fell amid the thorns, and the thorns grew with it, and choked it. 8Other fell into the good ground, and grew, and brought forth fruit one hundred times." As he said these things, he called out, "He who has ears to hear, let him hear!" 9Then his disciples asked him, "What does this parable [parabolē] mean?" 10He said, "To you it is given to know [gnōnai] the mysteries [mustēria] of the Kingdom of God, but to the rest in parables [parabolais]; that 'seeing [blepō] they may not see [mē blepōsin], and hearing [akouō] they may not understand [mē syniēmi].' 11Now the parable [parabolē] is this: The seed is the word of God. 12Those along the road are those who hear, then the devil comes, and takes away the word from their heart, that they may not believe [pisteuō] and be saved [sōzō]. 13Those on the rock are they who, when they hear, receive [akouō] the word with joy [charas]; but these have no root, who believe [pisteuousin] for a while, then fall away [aphistēmi] in time of temptation [kairō peirasmou]. 14That which fell among the thorns, these are those who have heard, and as they go on their way they are choked with cares, riches, and pleasures of life, and bring no fruit to maturity. 15That in the good ground, these are such as in an honest [kalē] and good [agathē] heart, having heard the word, hold it tightly, and bring forth fruit with patience. 16"No one, when he has lit a lamp, covers it with a container [skeuei], or puts it under a bed; but puts it on a stand, that those who enter in may see the light. 17For nothing is hidden [krypton], that will not be revealed; nor anything secret [apokruphon], that will not be known and come to light. 18Be careful therefore how you hear. For whoever has, to him will be given; and whoever doesn't have, from him will be taken away even that which he thinks [dokeō] he has." 19His mother and brothers came to him, and they could not come near him for the crowd. 20It was told him by some saying, "Your mother and your brothers stand outside, desiring to see you." 21But he answered them, "My mother and my brothers [adelphoi] are these who hear the word of God, and do it." 22Now it happened on one of those days, that he entered into a boat, himself and his disciples, and he said to them, "Let's go over to the other side of the lake." So they launched out. 23But as they sailed, he fell asleep. A wind storm came down on the lake, and they were taking on dangerous amounts of water. 24They came to him, and awoke him, saying, "Master, master, we are dying!" He awoke, and rebuked [epitimaō] the wind and the raging of the water, and they ceased, and it was calm. 25He said to them, "Where is your faith [pistis]?" Being afraid they marveled, saying one to another, "Who is this, then, that he commands even the winds and the water, and they obey him?" 26They arrived at the country of the Gadarenes, which is opposite Galilee. 27When Jesus stepped ashore, a certain man out of the city who had demons for a long time met him. He wore no clothes, and didn't live in a house, but in the tombs. 28When he saw Jesus, he cried out, and fell down before him, and with a loud voice said, "What do I have to do with you [ti emoi kai soi], Jesus, you Son of the Most High [hypsistou] God? I beg you, don't torment me!" 29For Jesus was commanding [akathartō] the unclean spirit to come out of the man. For the unclean spirit had often seized the man. He was kept under guard, and bound with chains and fetters. Breaking the bands apart, he was driven by the demon into the desert [erēmous]. 30Jesus asked him, "What is your name?" He said, "Legion," for many demons had entered into him. 31They begged him that he would not command them to go into the abyss [abysson]. 32Now there was there a herd of many pigs feeding on the mountain, and they begged him that he would allow them to enter into those. He allowed them. 33The demons came out from the man, and entered into the pigs, and the herd rushed down the steep bank into the lake, and were drowned. 34When those who fed them saw what had happened, they fled, and told it in the city and in the country. 35People went out to see what had happened. They came to Jesus, and found the man from whom the demons had gone out, sitting at Jesus' feet, clothed and in his right mind; and they were afraid. 36Those who saw it told them how he who had been possessed by demons was healed [sōzō]. 37All the people of the surrounding country of the Gadarenes asked him to depart from them, for they were very much afraid. He entered into the boat, and returned. 38But the man from whom the demons had gone out begged him that he might go with him, but Jesus sent him away, saying, 39"Return to your house, and declare what great things God has done for you." He went his way, proclaiming throughout the whole city what great things Jesus had done for him. 40It happened, when Jesus returned, that the multitude welcomed [apodechomai] him, for they were all waiting for him. 41Consider it [idou], there came a man named Jairus, and he was a ruler of the synagogue. He fell down at Jesus' feet, and begged him to come into his house, 42for he had an only daughter, about twelve years of age, and she was dying. But as he went, the multitudes pressed against him. 43A woman who had a flow of blood for twelve years, who had spent all her living on physicians, and could not be healed by any, 44came behind him, and touched the fringe [kraspedou; Heb. tzitzit]

Ritual fringe

The fringes and tassels at the four corners of the tallit are very important, as the following mitzvah (commandment) makes clear: "Make tassels on the corners of your garments and put a blue cord on each tassel. You are to do this for all time to come. The tassels will serve as reminders, and each time you see them you will remember all my commands and obey them" (Numbers 15.38-39). The fringes and tassels are called tzizit, and they remind Jews of the 613 mitzvot or commandments contained in the Torah. (In Jewish symbolic numerology, the word tzizit has a numerical value of 600. Each tassel comprises 8 threads and 5 knots. 600 + 8 + 5 = 613). The five knots in each tassel remind Jews of the five books of the Torah (the first five books of the Bible: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy). Today, the tallit, a shawl, is worn by Jewish men (and some women in Liberal/Reform communities) when they pray. It is often used as the canopy or huppah under which a couple are married, and when a Jew dies it may be used as his burial shroud. The tallit is a piece of fringed white cloth with blue or black stripes towards each end. The size varies, but it can be as large as five foot by two foot. To wrap oneself in a tallit is to be reminded of the all-embracing presence of God. Before putting on a tallit, the opening two verses of Psalm 104 are recited to evoke a sense of God's presence: "Bless the Lord, O my soul. O Lord my God, you are very great. You are clothed in glory and majesty. Wrapped in a robe of light; you spread the heavens like a tent cloth". Some choose to wear the tallit over the head like a hood. This cuts out distractions and helps the wearer to concentrate on his prayers.

of his cloak [himatiou], and immediately the flow of her blood stopped. 45Jesus said, "Who touched me?" When all denied it, Peter and those with him said, "Master, the multitudes press and jostle you, and you say, 'Who touched me?'" 46But Jesus said, "Someone did touch me, for I perceived that power has gone out of me." 47When the woman saw that she was not hidden, she came trembling, and falling down before him declared to him in the presence of all the people the reason why she had touched him, and how she was healed immediately. 48He said to her, "Daughter [Thygatēr], cheer up. Your faith [pistis] has made you well [sōzō]. Go in peace." 49While he still spoke, one from the ruler of the synagogue's house came, saying to him, "Your daughter is dead. Don't trouble [skyllō] the Teacher." 50But Jesus hearing it, answered him, "Don't be afraid. Only believe [pisteuō], and she will be healed [sōthēsetai]." 51When he came to the house, he didn't allow anyone to enter in, except Peter, John, James, the father of the child, and her mother. 52All were weeping and mourning her, but he said, "Don't weep. She isn't dead [apothnēskō], but sleeping [katheudō]." 53They were ridiculing [katagelaō] him, knowing that she was dead [apethanen]. 54But he put them all outside, and taking her by the hand, he called, saying, "Child, arise [egeirō]!" 55Her spirit returned, and she rose up immediately. He commanded that something be given to her to eat. 56Her parents were amazed [existēmi], but he commanded them to tell no one what had been done.

9 1He called the twelve together, and gave them power and authority over all demons, and to cure diseases. 2He sent them forth to preach [kēryssō] the Kingdom of God, and to heal [iaomai] the sick. 3He said to them, "Take nothing for your journey--neither staffs, nor wallet, nor bread, nor money; neither have two coats [chitōnas] apiece. 4Into whatever house you enter, stay there, and depart from there. 5As many as don't receive you, when you depart from that city, shake off even the dust from your feet for a testimony against them." 6They departed, and went throughout the villages, preaching the Good News [euangelizō], and healing [therapeuō] everywhere. 7Now Herod the tetrarch heard of all that was done by him; and he was very perplexed, because it was said by some that John had risen from the dead, 8and by some that Elijah had appeared, and by others that one of the old prophets had risen again. 9Herod said, "John I beheaded, but who is this, about whom I hear such things?" He sought to see him. 10The apostles, when they had returned, told him what things they had done. He took them, and withdrew apart to a deserted place of a city called Bethsaida. 11But the multitudes, perceiving it, followed him. He welcomed them, and spoke to them of the Kingdom of God, and he cured those who needed healing. 12The day began to wear away; and the twelve came, and said to him, "Send the multitude away, that they may go into the surrounding villages and farms, and lodge, and get food, for we are here in a deserted [erēmō] place." 13But he said to them, "You give them something to eat." They said, "We have no more than five loaves and two fish, unless we should go and buy food for all these people." 14For they were about five thousand men. He said to his disciples, "Make them sit down in groups [klisias] of about fifty each." 15They did so, and made them all sit down. 16He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to the sky, he blessed [eulogeō] them, and broke them, and gave them to the disciples to set before the multitude. 17They ate, and were all filled. They gathered up twelve baskets [kophinoi] of broken pieces that were left over. 18It happened, as he was praying alone, that the disciples were with him, and he asked them, "Who do the multitudes say that I am?" 19They answered, "'John the Baptizer,' but others say, 'Elijah,' and others, that one of the old prophets is risen again." 20He said to them, "But who do you say that I am?" Peter answered, "The Christ of God." 21But he warned [parangellō] them, and commanded them to tell this to no one, 22saying, "The Son of Man must suffer many things, and be rejected [apodokimazō] by the elders [presbyterōn], chief priests, and scribes [grammateōn], and be killed, and the third day be raised up." 23He said to all, "If anyone desires to come after me, let him deny [arneomai] himself, take up his cross, and follow [akoloutheō] me. 24For whoever desires to save [sōzō] his life [psychēn] will lose [apollymi] it, but whoever will lose [apolesei] his life [psychēn] for my sake, the same will save [sōsō] it. 25For what does it profit [ōpheleō] a man if he gains [kerdainō] the whole world [kosmon], and loses [apolesas] or forfeits [zēmioō] his own self? 26For whoever will be ashamed of me and of my words, of him will the Son of Man be ashamed, when he comes in his glory, and the glory of the Father, and of the holy angels. 27But I tell you the truth: There are some of those who stand here, who will in no way taste of death, until they see the Kingdom of God." 28It happened about eight days after these sayings, that he took with him Peter, John, and James, and went up onto the mountain to pray. 29As he was praying, the appearance of his face was altered, and his clothing became white and dazzling. 30Think on it [idou], two men were talking with him, who were Moses and Elijah, 31who appeared [oraō] in glory [doxē], and spoke of his departure [exodon], which he was about to accomplish at Jerusalem. 32Now Peter and those who were with him were heavy with sleep, but when they were fully awake, they saw his glory [doxan], and the two men who stood with him. 33It happened, as they were parting from him, that Peter said to Jesus, "Master [Epistata], it is good [kalon] for us to be here. Let's make three tents [skēnas]: one for you, and one for Moses, and one for Elijah," not knowing what he said. 34While he said these things, a cloud came and overshadowed them, and they were afraid as they entered into the cloud. 35A voice came out of the cloud, saying, "This is my beloved [agapētos] Son. Listen to him!" 36When the voice came, Jesus was found alone. They were silent, and told no one in those days any of the things which they had seen. 37It happened on the next day, when they had come down from the mountain, that a great multitude met him. 38Consider this [idou], a man from the crowd called out, saying, "Teacher, I beg you to look at my son, for he is my only child. 39Think of it [idou], a spirit takes him, he suddenly cries out, and it convulses him so that he foams, and it hardly departs from him, bruising him severely [syntribō]. 40I begged your disciples to cast it out, and they couldn't." 41Jesus answered, "Faithless [apistos] and perverse [diestrammenē] generation, how long shall I be with you and bear with you? Bring your son here." 42While he was still coming, the demon threw him down and convulsed him violently. But Jesus rebuked the unclean [akathartō] spirit, and healed the boy, and gave him back to his father. 43They were all astonished at the majesty [megaleiotēti] of God. But while all were marveling at all the things which Jesus did, he said to his disciples, 44"Let these words sink into your ears, for the Son of Man will be delivered up [paradidōmi] into the hands of men." 45But they didn't understand this saying [agnoeō to rhēma]. It was concealed from them, that they should not perceive it, and they were afraid to ask him about this saying [peri tou rhēmatos]. 46There arose an argument [dialogismos] among them about which of them was the greatest [meizōn]. 47Jesus, perceiving the reasoning [dialogismon] of their hearts, took a little child, and set him by his side, 48and said to them, "Whoever receives [dechomai] this little child in my name receives [dechetai] me. Whoever receives [dechomai] me receives [dechomai] him who sent me. For whoever is least [mikroteros] among you all, this one will be great [megas]." 49John answered, "Master, we saw someone casting out demons in your name, and we forbade him, because he doesn't follow with us." 50Jesus said to him, "Don't forbid him, for he who is not against us is for us." 51It came to pass, when the days were near that he should be taken up, he intently set his face [to prosōpon estērisen] to go to Jerusalem, 52and sent messengers [angelous] before his face. They went, and entered into a village of the Samaritans, so as to prepare for him. 53They didn't receive [dechomai] him, because he was traveling with his face set towards Jerusalem. 54When his disciples, James and John, saw this, they said, "Lord, do you want us to command fire to come down from the sky, and destroy them, just as Elijah did?" 55But he turned and rebuked [epitimaō] them, "You don't know of what kind of spirit you are. 56For the Son of Man didn't come to destroy men's lives, but to save them." They went to another village. 57As they went on the way, a certain man said to him, "I want to follow [akoloutheō] you wherever you go, Lord." 58Jesus said to him, "The foxes have holes, and the birds of the sky have nests, but the Son of Man has no place to lay his head." 59He said to another, "Follow [akolouthei] me!" But he said, "Lord, allow me first to go and bury my father." 60But Jesus said to him, "Leave the dead to bury their own dead, but you go and announce [diangellō] the Kingdom of God." 61Another also said, "I want to follow you, Lord, but first allow me to bid farewell to those who are at my house [oikon]." 62But Jesus said to him, "No one, having put his hand to the plough [apotron]

One hand guided the plough while the other held a goad or long pointed staff, by which the oxen were spurred on to their work. Since the plough was light the ploughman leant forward with his weight on the handle to keep the share (cutting blade) in the ground. By looking back, the labourer would be unable to make straight furrows.

, and looking back, is fit [euthetos] for the Kingdom of God."

10 1Now after these things, the Lord also appointed [anadeiknymi] seventy [ebdomēkonta]

'Seventy'; the total number of members of Jacob's family when he went down into Egypt, and of the representative elders of the Israelites when they left Egypt (Ge 46:27; Nu 11:16f).

others, and sent them two by two ahead of him into every city and place, where he was about to come. 2Then he said to them, "The harvest is indeed plentiful, but the laborers are few. Pray therefore to the Lord of the harvest, that he may send out laborers into his harvest. 3Go your ways. Look [idou], I send you out as lambs among wolves. 4Carry no purse [ballantion], nor wallet [pēran], nor sandals. Greet [aspazomai] no one on the way. 5Into whatever house you enter, first say, 'Peace be to this house.' 6If a son of peace is there, your peace will rest on him; but if not, it will return to you. 7Remain in that same house, eating and drinking the things they give, for the labourer is worthy of his wages. Don't go from house to house. 8Into whatever city you enter, and they receive [dechomai] you, eat the things that are set before you. 9Heal the sick who are therein, and tell them, 'The Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 10But into whatever city you enter, and they don't receive [dechomai] you, go out into its streets and say, 11'Even the dust from your city that clings to us, we wipe off against you. Nevertheless know this, that the Kingdom of God has come near to you.' 12I tell you, it will be more tolerable in that day for Sodom than for that city. 13"Woe to you, Chorazin! Woe to you, Bethsaida! For if the mighty works had been done in Tyre and Sidon which were done in you, they would have repented [metanoeō] long ago, sitting in sackcloth and ashes. 14But it will be more tolerable for Tyre and Sidon in the judgment [krisei] than for you. 15You, Capernaum, who are exalted to heaven, will be brought down to Hades [hadou; Heb. Sh'ol]. 16Whoever listens to you listens to me, and whoever rejects [atheteō] you rejects [atheteō] me. Whoever rejects [atheteō] me rejects [atheteō] him who sent me." 17The seventy returned with joy, saying, "Lord, even the demons are subject to us in your name!" 18He said to them, "I saw Satan having fallen like lightning from heaven. 19See [idou], I give you authority to tread on serpents and scorpions, and over all the power of the enemy. Nothing will in any way hurt you. 20Nevertheless, don't rejoice [chairō] in this, that the spirits are subject to you, but rejoice [chairō] that your names are written in heaven [en tois ouranois]." 21In that same hour Jesus rejoiced in the Holy Spirit, and said, "I thank [exomologeō] you, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that you have hidden these things from the wise and understanding, and revealed them to little children. Yes, Father, for so it was well-pleasing in your sight." 22Turning to the disciples, he said, "All things have been delivered to me by my Father. No one knows who the Son is, except the Father, and who the Father is, except the Son, and he to whomever the Son desires [boulomai] to reveal him." 23Turning to the disciples, he said privately, "Blessed [makarioi] are the eyes which see the things that you see, 24for I tell you that many prophets and kings desired to see the things which you see, and didn't see them, and to hear the things which you hear, and didn't hear them." 25Consider this [idou], a certain lawyer [nomikos] stood up and tested [ekpeirazō] him, saying, "Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" 26He said to him, "What is written in the law? How do you read it?" 27He answered, "You shall love [agapaō] the Lord your God with all your heart, with all your soul [psychē], with all your strength [ischui], and with all your mind [dianoia]; and your neighbor as yourself." 28He said to him, "You have answered correctly. Do this, and you will live [zaō]." 29But he, desiring to justify [dikaioō] himself, asked Jesus, "Who is my neighbour?" 30Jesus answered, "A certain man was going down from Jerusalem to Jericho, and he fell among robbers, who both stripped him and beat him, and departed, leaving him half dead. 31By chance a certain priest was going down that way. When he saw him, he passed by on the other side. 32In the same way a Levite also, when he came to the place, and saw him, passed by on the other side. 33But a certain Samaritan, as he travelled, came where he was. When he saw him, he was moved with compassion, 34came to him, and bound up his wounds, pouring on oil and wine. He set him on his own animal, and brought him to an inn, and took care of him. 35On the next day, when he departed, he took out two denarii [dēnaria], and gave them to the host, and said to him, 'Take care of him. Whatever you spend beyond that, I will repay you when I return.' 36Now which of these three do you think seemed to be a neighbor to him who fell among the robbers?" 37He said, "He who showed mercy on him." Then Jesus said to him, "Go and do likewise." 38It happened as they went on their way, he entered into a certain village, and a certain woman named Martha received [hypodechomai] him into her house. 39She had a sister called Mary, who also sat at Jesus' feet, and heard his word. 40But Martha was distracted with much serving [peri pollēn diakonian]

According to the hospitality practices of the time, Mary was responsible, along with her sister Martha, for serving the guests but her affection for the Lord outweighed her adherence to customs.

, and she came up to him, and said, "Lord, don't you care that my sister left me to serve [diakoneō] alone? Ask her therefore to help me." 41Jesus answered her, "Martha, Martha, you are anxious and troubled about many things, 42but one thing is needed. Mary has chosen the good part, which will not be taken away from her."

11 1It happened, that when he finished praying in a certain place, one of his disciples said to him, "Lord, teach us to pray, just as John also taught his disciples." 2He said to them, "When you pray, say, 'Our Father in heaven, may your name be kept holy [hagiazō]. May your Kingdom come. May your will be done on Earth, as it is in heaven. 3Give us day by day our daily bread. 4Forgive [aphiēmi] us our sins [harmartias], for we ourselves also forgive [aphiomen] everyone who is indebted [opheilō] to us. Bring us not into temptation [peirasmon], but deliver us from the evil one.'" 5He said to them, "Which of you, if you go to a friend at midnight, and tell him, 'Friend, lend me three loaves of bread, 6for a friend of mine has come to me from a journey, and I have nothing to set before him,' 7and he from within will answer and say, 'Don't bother me. The door is now shut, and my children are with me in bed [koitēn]

A multipurpose room served as a kitchen, work space, and sleeping quarters for all family members.

. I can't get up and give it to you'? 8I tell you, although he will not rise and give it to him because he is his friend, yet because of his persistence, he will get up and give him as many as he needs. 9"I tell you, keep asking, and it will be given you. Keep seeking, and you will find. Keep knocking, and it will be opened to you. 10For everyone who asks receives. He who seeks finds. To him who knocks it will be opened. 11"Which of you fathers, if your son asks for bread, will give him a stone? Or if he asks for a fish, he won't give him a snake instead of a fish, will he? 12Or if he asks for an egg, he won't give him a scorpion, will he? 13If you then, being evil, know how to give good gifts to your children, how much more will your heavenly Father give the Holy Spirit to those who ask him?" 14He was casting out [ekballō] a demon, and it was mute. It happened, when the demon had gone out, the mute man spoke; and the multitudes marvelled [thaumazō]. 15But some of them said, "He casts out [ekballō] demons by Beelzebul [Beelzeboul; Heb. Ba 'al-zibbul], the prince of the demons." 16Others, testing [peirazō] him, sought from him a sign [sēmeion] from heaven [ouranou]. 17But he, knowing their thoughts [dianoēmata], said to them, "Every kingdom divided against itself is brought to desolation. A house divided against itself falls. 18If Satan also is divided against himself, how will his kingdom [basileia] stand? For you say that I cast out [ekballō] demons by Beelzebul [Beelzeboul]. 19But if I cast out demons by Beelzebul [Beelzeboul], by whom do your children [uioi] cast them out [ekballō]? Therefore will they be your judges [kritai]. 20But if I by the finger of God cast out [ekballō] demons, then the Kingdom [basileia] of God has come to you. 21"When the strong man, fully armed, guards his own dwelling, his goods are safe. 22But when someone stronger attacks him and overcomes him, he takes from him his whole armor in which he trusted, and divides his spoils. 23"He that is not with me is against me. He who doesn't gather with me scatters. 24The unclean [akatharton] spirit, when he has gone out of the man, passes through dry places, seeking rest [anapausin], and finding none, he says, 'I will turn back to my house from which I came out.' 25When he returns, he finds it swept and put in order. 26Then he goes, and takes seven other spirits more evil [ponērotera] than himself, and they enter in and dwell [katoikeō] there. The last state of that man becomes worse than the first." 27It came to pass, as he said these things, a certain woman out of the multitude lifted up her voice, and said to him, "Blessed [makaria] is the womb that bore you, and the breasts which nursed you!" 28But he said, "On the contrary, blessed [makarioi] are those who hear the word of God, and keep it." 29When the multitudes were gathering together to him, he began to say, "This is an evil generation. It seeks after a sign. No sign will be given to it but the sign of Jonah, the prophet. 30For even as Jonah became a sign to the Ninevites, so will also the Son of Man be to this generation. 31The Queen of the South will rise up in the judgment [krisei] with the men of this generation, and will condemn [katakrinō] them: for she came from the ends of the earth to hear the wisdom of Solomon; and look [idou]: one greater [pleion] than Solomon is here. 32The men of Nineveh will stand up in the judgment [krisei] with this generation, and will condemn [katakrinousin] it: for they repented [matanoeō] at the preaching [kērygma] of Jonah, and look [idou]: one greater [pleion] than Jonah is here. 33"No one, when he has lit a lamp, puts it in a cellar or under a basket, but on a stand, that those who come in may see the light. 34The lamp of the body is the eye. Therefore when your eye is good [haplous], your whole body is also full of light; but when it is evil [ponēros], your body also is full of darkness. 35Therefore see whether the light that is in you isn't darkness. 36If therefore your whole body is full of light, having no part dark, it will be wholly full of light, as when the lamp with its bright shining gives you light." 37Now as he spoke, a certain Pharisee asked him to dine with him. He went in, and sat at the table. 38When the Pharisee saw it, he marveled that he had not first washed [baptizō] himself before dinner. 39The Lord said to him, "Now you Pharisees [Pharisaios] cleanse [katharizō] the outside of the cup and of the platter, but your inward part is full of extortion and wickedness [ponērias]. 40You foolish [aphrones] ones, didn't he who made the outside make the inside also? 41But give for gifts to the needy those things which are within, and see [idou], all things will be clean [kathara] to you. 42But woe to you Pharisees! For you tithe mint and rue and every herb, but you bypass justice and the love [agapēn] of God. You ought to have done these, and not to have left the other undone. 43Woe to you Pharisees! For you love [agapaō] the best seats [protokathedrian] in the synagogues, and the greetings in the marketplaces [agorais]. 44Woe to you, scribes and Pharisees [Parisaiois], hypocrites [hypokritai]! For you are like hidden graves [mnēmeia]

See Mt 23:27. Walking over a grave would cause ceremonial defilement.

, and the men who walk over them don't know it." 45One of the lawyers [nomikōn] answered him, "Teacher, in saying this you insult [hybrizō] us also." 46He said, "Woe to you lawyers [nomikois] also! For you load men with burdens that are difficult to carry, and you yourselves won't even lift one finger to help carry those burdens. 47Woe to you! For you build the tombs of the prophets, and your fathers killed them. 48So you testify [martyreō] and consent [syneudokeō] to the works of your fathers. For they killed them, and you build their tombs. 49Therefore also the wisdom [sophia] of God said, 'I will send to them prophets and apostles; and some of them they will kill and persecute [diōxousin], 50that the blood of all the prophets, which was shed from the foundation of the world [kosmou], may be required of this generation; 51from the blood of Abel to the blood of Zachariah, who perished between the altar and the sanctuary.' Yes, I tell you, it will be required of this generation. 52Woe to you lawyers [nomikois]! For you took away the key of knowledge. You didn't enter in yourselves, and those who were entering in, you hindered." 53As he said these things to them, the scribes [grammateis] and the Pharisees began to be terribly angry, and to draw many things out of him; 54lying in wait [enedreuō] for him, and seeking to catch [thēreuō] him in something he might say [ek tou stomatos], that they might accuse him.

12 1Meanwhile, when a multitude of many thousands had gathered together, so much so that they trampled on each other, he began to tell his disciples first of all, "Beware [prosechō heautois] of the yeast of the Pharisees, which is hypocrisy [hypokrisis]. 2But there is nothing covered up [apokalyptō], that will not be revealed [krypton], nor hidden, that will not be known. 3Therefore whatever you have said in the darkness will be heard in the light. What you have spoken in the ear in the inner chambers will be proclaimed on the housetops. 4"I tell you, my friends, don't be afraid of those who kill the body, and after that have no more that they can do. 5But I will warn you whom you should fear. Fear him, who after he has killed, has power to cast into Gehenna [geennan; Heb. Gey-Hinnom]. Yes, I tell you, fear him. 6"Aren't five sparrows sold for two assaria coins [assariōn]? Not one of them is forgotten by God. 7But the very hairs of your head are all numbered. Therefore don't be afraid. You are of more value than many sparrows. 8"I tell you, everyone who confesses [homologeō] me before men, him will the Son of Man also confess [homologēsei] before the angels of God; 9but he who denies [aparneomai] me in the presence of men will be denied [aparneomai] in the presence of the angels of God. 10Everyone who speaks a word against the Son of Man will be forgiven [aphiēmi], but those who blaspheme [blasphēmeō] against the Holy Spirit will not be forgiven [aphiēmi]. 11When they bring you before the synagogues, the rulers, and the authorities, don't be anxious how or what you will answer, or what you will say; 12for the Holy Spirit will teach you in that same hour what you must say." 13One of the multitude said to him, "Teacher, tell my brother to divide the inheritance with me." 14But he said to him, "Man, who made me a judge [kritēn] or an arbitrator over you?" 15He said to them, "Beware [horaō]! Keep yourselves from [phylassō] covetousness, for a man's life doesn't consist of the abundance of the things which he possesses." 16He spoke a parable [parabolēn] to them, saying, "The ground of a certain rich man brought forth abundantly. 17He reasoned within himself, saying, 'What will I do, because I don't have room to store my crops?' 18He said, 'This is what I will do. I will pull down my barns, and build bigger ones, and there I will store all my grain and my goods. 19I will tell my soul, "Soul, you have many goods laid up for many years. Take your ease, eat, drink, be merry."' 20"But God said to him, 'You foolish one [aphrōn], tonight your soul [psychēn] is required of you. The things which you have prepared--whose will they be?' 21So is he who lays up treasure for himself, and is not rich toward God." 22He said to his disciples, "Therefore I tell you, don't be anxious for your life [psychē], what you will eat, nor yet for your body, what you will wear. 23Life [psychē] is more than food, and the body is more than clothing. 24Consider [katanoeō] the ravens: they don't sow, they don't reap, they have no warehouse or barn, and God feeds them. How much more valuable are you than birds! 25Which of you by being anxious can add a cubit to his height? 26If then you aren't able to do even the least things, why are you anxious about the rest? 27Consider [katanoeō] the lilies, how they grow. They don't toil, neither do they spin; yet I tell you, even Solomon in all his glory was not arrayed like one of these. 28But if this is how God clothes the grass in the field, which today exists, and tomorrow is cast into the oven, how much more will he clothe you, O you of little faith [oligopistoi]? 29Don't seek what you will eat or what you will drink; neither be anxious. 30For the nations of the world [ethnētou kosmou] seek after all of these things, but your Father knows that you need these things. 31But seek God's Kingdom, and all these things will be added to you. 32Don't be afraid, little flock, for it is your Father's good pleasure [eudokeō] to give you the Kingdom. 33Sell that which you have, and give gifts to the needy. Make for yourselves purses which don't grow old, a treasure in the heavens that doesn't fail, where no thief approaches, neither moth destroys [diaphtheirō]. 34For where your treasure is, there will your heart be also. 35"Let your waist be girded and your lamps burning. 36Be like men watching for their lord, when he returns from the marriage feast; that, when he comes and knocks, they may immediately open to him. 37Blessed [makarioi] are those servants [douloi], whom the lord will find watching when he comes. Most certainly I tell you [amēn legō hymin], that he will dress himself, and make them recline, and will come and serve [diakoneō] them. 38They will be blessed [makarioi] if he comes in the second or third watch, and finds them so. 39But know this, that if the master of the house had known in what hour the thief was coming, he would have watched, and not allowed his house to be broken into. 40Therefore be ready also, for the Son of Man is coming in an hour that you don't expect him." 41Peter said to him, "Lord, are you telling this parable [parabolēn] to us, or to everybody?" 42The Lord said, "Who then is the faithful [pistos] and wise steward [oikonomos ho phronimos], whom his lord will set over his household [therapeias], to give them their portion of food at the right times? 43Blessed [makarios] is that servant [doulos] whom his lord will find doing so when he comes. 44Truly I tell you [alēthōs legō hymin], that he will set him over all that he has. 45But if that servant [doulos] says in his heart, 'My lord delays his coming,' and begins to beat the menservants [paidas] and the maidservants [paidiskas], and to eat and drink, and to be drunken, 46then the lord of that servant [doulou] will come in a day when he isn't expecting him, and in an hour that he doesn't know, and will cut him in two [dichotomeō], and place his portion with the unfaithful [apistōn]. 47That servant [doulos], who knew his lord's will, and didn't prepare, nor do what he wanted, will be beaten [derō] with many stripes, 48but he who didn't know, and did things worthy of stripes, will be beaten [darēsetai] with few stripes. To whoever much is given, of him will much be required; and to whom much was entrusted, of him more will be asked. 49"I came to throw fire on the earth. I wish it were already kindled. 50But I have a baptism to be baptized with, and how distressed I am until it is accomplished! 51Do you think that I have come to give peace in the earth? I tell you, no, but rather division. 52For from now on, there will be five in one house divided, three against two, and two against three. 53They will be divided, father against son, and son against father; mother against daughter, and daughter against her mother; mother-in-law against her daughter-in-law, and daughter-in-law against her mother-in-law." 54He said to the multitudes also, "When you see a cloud rising from the west, immediately you say, 'A shower is coming,' and so it happens. 55When a south wind [noton] blows, you say, 'There will be a scorching heat,' and it happens. 56You hypocrites [hypokritai]! You know how to interpret [dokomazō] the appearance of the earth and the sky, but how is it that you don't interpret [dokimazein] this time? 57Why don't you judge [krinō] for yourselves what is right [dikaion]? 58For when you are going with your adversary before the magistrate, try diligently on the way to be released from him, lest perhaps he drag you to the judge [kritēn], and the judge [kritēs] deliver you [paradidōmi] to the officer [praktori], and the officer [praktōr] throw you into prison. 59I tell you, you will by no means get out of there, until you have paid the very last penny [lepton]."

13 1Now there were some present at the same time who told him about the Galileans [Galilaiōn], whose blood Pilate [Pilatos]

Pilate had been responsible for the stabbing of Galileans in the very temple courts themselves. Whatever uprising had sparked this demonstration, Pilate and Caiaphas hastily connived in the crime of plotting that Jesus be done to death.

had mixed with their sacrifices. 2Jesus answered them, "Do you think that these Galileans [Galilaioi] were worse sinners than all the other Galileans [Galilaious], because they suffered such things? 3I tell you, no, but unless you repent [metanoeō], you will all perish [apollymi] in the same way. 4Or those eighteen, on whom the tower in Siloam fell, and killed them; do you think that they were worse offenders than all the men who dwell in Jerusalem? 5I tell you, no, but, unless you repent [metanoēte], you will all perish [apoleisthe] in the same way." 6He spoke this parable [parabolēn]. "A certain man had a fig tree [zykēn]

The fig tree (and vineyard) are symbols of the Jewish nation which God had cultivated in order for it to bear spiritual fruit.

planted in his vineyard [ampelōni]

Vineyards were not only used for growing vines but fruit-trees were also grown together. In this way, wine carried a bouquet of its neighbouring plants and those plants that had grown there prior to the vine.

, and he came seeking fruit on it, and found none. 7He said to the vine dresser, 'Look [idou], these three years I have come looking for fruit on this fig tree, and found none. Cut it down. Why does it waste the soil?' 8He answered, 'Lord, leave it alone this year also, until I dig around it, and fertilize it. 9If it bears fruit, fine; but if not, after that, you can cut it down.'" 10He was teaching in one of the synagogues on the Sabbath day. 11Think of it [idou], there was a woman who had a spirit of infirmity eighteen years, and she was bent over, and could in no way straighten herself up. 12When Jesus saw her, he called her, and said to her, "Woman, you are freed [apoluō] from your infirmity [astheneias]." 13He laid his hands on her, and immediately she stood up straight, and glorified [doxazō] God. 14The ruler of the synagogue [archisynagōgos], being indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day!" 15Therefore the Lord answered him, "You hypocrites [hypokritai]! Doesn't each one of you free his ox or his donkey from the stall on the Sabbath, and lead him away to water? 16Ought not this woman, being a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan had bound [deō] eighteen long years, be freed [luō apo] from this bondage [desmou] on the Sabbath day?" 17As he said these things, all his adversaries were disappointed, and all the multitude rejoiced [chairō] for all the glorious things that were done by him. 18He said, "What is the Kingdom of God like? To what shall I compare it? 19It is like a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and put in his own garden. It grew, and became a large tree, and the birds of the sky lodged in its branches." 20Again he said, "To what shall I compare the Kingdom of God? 21It is like yeast, which a woman took and hid in three measures of flour, until it was all leavened." 22He went on his way through cities and villages, teaching, and travelling on to Jerusalem. 23One said to him, "Lord, are they few who are saved [sōzō]?" He said to them, 24"Strive to enter in by the narrow door, for many, I tell you, will seek to enter in, and will not be able. 25When once the master of the house has risen up, and has shut the door, and you begin to stand outside, and to knock at the door, saying, 'Lord, Lord, open to us!' then he will answer and tell you, 'I don't know you or where you come from.' 26Then you will begin to say, 'We ate and drank in your presence, and you taught in our streets.' 27He will say, 'I tell you, I don't know where you come from. Depart from me, all you workers of iniquity.' 28There will be weeping and gnashing of teeth, when you see Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and all the prophets, in the Kingdom [basileia] of God, and yourselves being thrown outside. 29They will come from the east, west, north, and south, and will sit down in the Kingdom [basileia] of God. 30Look [idou], there are some who are last who will be first, and there are some who are first who will be last." 31On that same day, some Pharisees [Pharisaioi] came, saying to him, "Get out of here, and go away, for Herod [Hrōdēs] wants to kill you." 32He said to them, "Go and tell that fox [alōpeki]

Take for example the cunning way he tried to insinuate himself into the good will of Caesar, building a town and calling it by the imperial name. The town of Tiberias was built by Herod on the site of a cemetery; consequently no one would live there. He had to subsidize Jews to open business in a place which for them was ceremonially unclean. His downfall was through his request for the royal title made at the instigation of Herodias.

, 'See [idou], I cast out demons and perform cures today and tomorrow, and the third day I complete my mission [teleioō]. 33Nevertheless I must go on my way today and tomorrow and the next day, for it can't be that a prophet perish [apollymi] outside of Jerusalem.' 34"Jerusalem, Jerusalem, that kills the prophets, and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted [thelō] to gather your children together, like a hen gathers her own brood under her wings, and you refused [thelō]! 35Look [idou], your house is left to you desolate [erēmos]. I tell you, you will not see me, until you say, 'Blessed [eulogeō] is he who comes in the name [onomati] of the Lord!'"

14 1It happened, when he went into the house of one of the rulers of the Pharisees [Pharisaiōn] on a Sabbath to eat bread, that they were watching him. 2And look [idou], a certain man who had dropsy [hudrōpikos] was in front of him. 3Jesus, answering, spoke to the lawyers [nomikous] and Pharisees, saying, "Is it lawful [exestin] to heal on the Sabbath?" 4But they were silent. He took him, and healed him, and let him go. 5He answered them, "Which of you, if your son or an ox [bous] fell into a well, wouldn't immediately pull him out on a Sabbath day?" 6They couldn't answer him regarding these things. 7He spoke a parable [parabolēn] to those who were invited, when he noticed how they chose the best seats, and said to them, 8"When you are invited by anyone to a marriage feast, don't sit in the best seat, since perhaps someone more honourable than you might be invited by him, 9and he who invited both of you would come and tell you, 'Make room for this person.' Then you would begin, with shame, to take the lowest place. 10But when you are invited, go and sit in the lowest place, so that when he who invited you comes, he may tell you, 'Friend, move up higher.' Then you will be honoured in the presence of all who sit at the table with you. 11For everyone who exalts [hypsoō] himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted [hypsōthēsetai]." 12He also said to the one who had invited him, "When you make a dinner or a supper, don't call your friends, nor your brothers, nor your kinsmen, nor rich neighbours, or perhaps they might also return the favour, and pay you back. 13But when you make a feast, ask the poor, the maimed, the lame, or the blind; 14and you will be blessed [makarios], because they don't have the resources to repay you. For you will be repaid in the resurrection of the righteous [anastasei tōn dikaiōn]." 15When one of those who sat at the table with him heard these things, he said to him, "Blessed [makarios] is he who will feast in the Kingdom of God!" 16But he said to him, "A certain man made a great supper, and he invited many people. 17He sent out his servant [doulon] at supper time to tell those who were invited, 'Come, for everything is ready now.' 18They all as one began to make excuses. "The first said to him, 'I have bought a field, and I must go and see it. Please have me excused.' 19"Another said, 'I have bought five yoke of oxen, and I must go try them out. Please have me excused.' 20"Another said, 'I have married a wife, and therefore I can't come.' 21"That servant [doulos] came, and told his lord these things. Then the master of the house [oikodespotēs], being angry [orgizō], said to his servant [doulō], 'Go out quickly into the streets and lanes of the city, and bring in the poor, maimed, blind, and lame.' 22"The servant [doulos] said, 'Lord, it is done as you commanded, and there is still room.' 23"The lord said to the servant [doulon], 'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel [anankazō] them to come in, that my house may be filled. 24For I tell you that none of those men who were invited will taste of my supper.'" 25Now great multitudes were going with him. He turned and said to them, 26"If anyone comes to me, and doesn't disregard [miseō] his own father, mother, wife, children, brothers, and sisters, yes, and his own life [psychēn] also, he can't be my disciple. 27Whoever doesn't bear [bastazō] his own cross, and come after [erchomai opisō] me, can't be my disciple. 28For which of you, desiring to build a tower, doesn't first sit down and count the cost, to see if he has enough to complete it? 29Or perhaps, when he has laid a foundation, and is not able to finish, everyone who sees begins to mock him, 30saying, 'This man began to build, and wasn't able to finish.' 31Or what king, as he goes to encounter another king in war, will not sit down first and consider whether he is able with ten thousand to meet him who comes against him with twenty thousand? 32Or else, while the other is yet a great way off, he sends an envoy, and asks for conditions of peace. 33So therefore whoever of you who doesn't renounce all that he has, he can't be my disciple. 34Salt is good [kalon], but if the salt becomes flat and tasteless, with what do you season it? 35It is fit neither for the soil nor for the manure pile. It is thrown out. He who has ears to hear, let him hear."

15 1Now all the tax collectors and sinners [amartōloi] were coming close to him to hear him. 2The Pharisees and the scribes [grammateis] murmured, saying, "This man welcomes [prosdechomai] sinners, and eats with them." 3He told them this parable [parabolēn]. 4"Which of you men, if you had one hundred sheep [probata]

Shepherds had a bad reputation. Their work prevented them from observing the ceremonial law. They roamed all over the country with scant regard to boundaries. They were considered unreliable and were not allowed to give testimony in the law-courts.

, and lost one of them, wouldn't leave the ninety-nine in the wilderness, and go after the one that was lost, until he found it? 5When he has found it, he carries it on his shoulders, rejoicing [chairōn]. 6When he comes home, he calls together his friends and his neighbors, saying to them, 'Rejoice with [synchairō] me, for I have found my sheep which was lost!' 7I tell you that even so there will be more joy [chara] in heaven over one sinner [amartōlō] who repents [metanoeō], than over ninety-nine righteous [dikaiois] people who need no repentance [metanoias]. 8Or what woman, if she had ten drachma coins [drachmas], if she lost one drachma coin, wouldn't light a lamp, sweep the house, and seek diligently until she found it? 9When she has found it, she calls together her friends and neighbors, saying, 'Rejoice with [sugcharēte] me, for I have found the drachma [drachmēn] which I had lost.' 10Even so, I tell you, there is joy [chara] in the presence of the angels of God over one sinner repenting [amartōlō metanoounti]." 11He said, "A certain man had two sons. 12The younger of them said to his father, 'Father, give me my share of your property [ousias]

Neither Jewish nor Roman law permitted the father to have the arbitrary disposal of all his estate. The property was entailed on the sons at the father's death (and occasionally before, e.g., Ge 25:5), the daughters not being allowed to inherit unless there were no sons (Ge 31:14; Nu 27:8). The firstborn son received a double-share of the inheritance.

.' He divided his livelihood between them. 13Not many days after, the younger son gathered all of this together and travelled into a far country. There he wasted his property with riotous living. 14When he had spent all of it, there arose a severe famine in that country, and he began to be in need. 15He went and joined himself to one of the citizens of that country, and he sent him into his fields to feed pigs. 16He wanted to fill his belly with the husks that the pigs ate, but no one gave him any. 17But when he came to himself he said, 'How many hired servants of my father's have bread enough to spare, and I'm dying with hunger! 18I will get up and go to my father, and will tell him, "Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. 19I am no more worthy [axios] to be called your son. Make me as one of your hired servants."' 20"He arose, and came to his father. But while he was still far off, his father saw him, and was moved with compassion [splanchnizomai], and ran, and fell on his neck, and kissed him. 21The son said to him, 'Father, I have sinned against heaven, and in your sight. I am no longer worthy [axios] to be called your son.' 22"But the father said to his servants [doulos], 'Bring out the best robe, and put it on him. Put a ring on his hand, and shoes on his feet. 23Bring the fattened calf, kill it, and let us eat, and celebrate; 24for this, my son, was dead, and is alive again. He was lost [apollymi], and is found.' They began to celebrate. 25"Now his elder son was in the field. As he came near to the house, he heard music and dancing. 26He called one of the servants [paidōn] to him, and asked what was going on. 27He said to him, 'Your brother has come, and your father has killed the fattened calf, because he has received him back safe and healthy.' 28But he was angry, and would not go in. Therefore his father came out, and begged [parakaleō] him. 29But he answered his father, 'Look [idou], these many years I have served [douleuō] you, and I never disobeyed a commandment of yours, but you never gave me a goat, that I might celebrate with my friends. 30But when this, your son, came, who has devoured your living with prostitutes, you killed the fattened calf for him.' 31"He said to him, 'Son, you are always with me, and all that is mine is yours. 32But it was appropriate to celebrate and be glad, for this, your brother, was dead, and is alive again. He was lost [apolōlōs], and is found.'"

16 1He also said to his disciples, "There was a certain rich man who had a manager [oikonomon]

House-distributor, overseer, treasurer or governor. The manager or steward had general charge of the business of the house and was responsible for the care of the heir.

. An accusation was made to him that this man was wasting his possessions. 2He called him, and said to him, 'What is this that I hear about you? Give an accounting [logon] of your management [oikonomias], for you can no longer be manager [oikonomein].' 3"The manager [oikonomos] said within himself, 'What will I do, seeing that my lord is taking away the management position from me? I don't have strength to dig. I am ashamed to beg. 4I know what I will do, so that when I am removed from management, they may receive [dechomai] me into their houses [oikous].' 5Calling each one of his lord's debtors [chreopheiletōn] to him, he said to the first, 'How much do you owe [opheilō] to my lord?' 6He said, 'A hundred batos of oil.' He said to him, 'Take your bill, and sit down quickly and write fifty.' 7Then said he to another, 'How much do you owe [opheileis]?' He said, 'A hundred cors [korous] of wheat.' He said to him, 'Take your bill, and write eighty.' 8"His lord commended the dishonest manager [adikias oikonomon] because he had done wisely [phronimōs], for the children of this world [uioi tou aiōnos] are, in their own generation, wiser [phronimōteroi] than the children of the light. 9I tell you, make for yourselves friends by means of unrighteous mammon [philous ek tou mamōna tēs adikias], so that when you fail [ekleipō], they may receive [dechomai] you into the eternal tents [skēnas]. 10He who is faithful [pistos] in a very little is faithful [pistos] also in much. He who is dishonest [adikos] in a very little is also dishonest [adikos] in much. 11If therefore you have not been faithful [pistoi] in the unrighteous mammon [adikō mamōna], who will commit to your trust [pisteuō] the true riches? 12If you have not been faithful in that which is another's, who will give you that which is your own? 13No servant [oiketēs] can serve [doleuō] two masters, for either he will hate [miseō] the one, and love [agapaō] the other; or else he will hold to [antechō] one, and despise [kataphroneō] the other. You aren't able to serve [douleuein] God and mammon [mamōna]." 14The Pharisees, who were lovers of money [philarguroi], also heard all these things, and they scoffed at him. 15He said to them, "You are those who justify [dikaioō] yourselves in the sight of men, but God knows your hearts. For that which is exalted among men is an abomination [bdelugma] in the sight of God. 16The law and the prophets were until John. From that time the Good News of the Kingdom of God is preached [euangelizō], and everyone is forcing his way [biazo] into it. 17But it is easier for heaven and earth to pass away, than for one tiny stroke [keraian] of a pen in the law to fall [piptō]. 18Everyone who divorces [apoluō] his wife, and marries another, commits adultery. He who marries one who is divorced [apolelymenēn] from a husband commits adultery. 19"Now there was a certain rich man [plousios]

In Latin, 'dives', rich or rich man.

, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, living in luxury every day. 20A certain beggar, named Lazarus, was laid at his gate, full of sores, 21and desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table. Yes, even the dogs [kunes] came and licked his sores [eilkōmenos]. 22It happened that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels to Abraham's bosom [kolpon]. The rich man also died, and was buried. 23In Hades [hadē], he lifted up his eyes, being in torment, and saw Abraham far off, and Lazarus at his bosom [kolpois]. 24He cried and said, 'Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue! For I am in anguish in this flame.' 25"But Abraham said, 'Son, remember that you, in your lifetime, received your good [agatha] things, and Lazarus, in like manner, bad [kaka] things. But now here he is comforted [parakaleō] and you are in anguish. 26Besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf [chasma mega] fixed, that those who want to pass from here to you are not able, and that none may cross over from there to us.' 27"He said, 'I ask you therefore, father, that you would send [pemtō] him to my father's house; 28for I have five brothers, that he may testify [diamartyromai] to them, so they won't also come into this place of torment.' 29"But Abraham said to him, 'They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them.' 30"He said, 'No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent [metanoeō].' 31"He said to him, 'If they don't listen to Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded [peithō] if one rises from the dead.'"

17 1He said to the disciples, "It is impossible that no occasions of stumbling [tou ta skandala] should come, but woe to him through whom they come! 2It would be better [lysiteleō] for him if a millstone [lithos mylikos] were hung around his neck, and he were thrown into the sea, rather than that he should cause one of these little ones to stumble [hina skandalizō]. 3Be careful [prosechō]. If your brother [adelphos] sins against you, rebuke [epitimaō] him. If he repents [metanoeō], forgive [aphiēmi] him. 4If he sins against you seven times in the day, and seven times returns, saying, 'I repent [metanoō],' you shall forgive [aphēseis] him." 5The apostles said to the Lord, "Increase our faith [pistin]." 6The Lord said, "If you had faith like a grain of mustard seed, you would tell this sycamore tree, 'Be uprooted, and be planted in the sea,' and it would obey you. 7But who is there among you, having a servant [doulon] plowing or keeping sheep, that will say, when he comes in from the field, 'Come immediately and sit down at the table,' 8and will not rather tell him, 'Prepare my supper, clothe yourself properly, and serve me, while I eat and drink. Afterward you shall eat and drink'? 9Does he thank that servant [doulō] because he did the things that were commanded? I think not. 10Even so you also, when you have done all the things that are commanded you, say, 'We are unworthy servants [douloi]. We have done our duty.'" 11It happened as he was on his way to Jerusalem, that he was passing along the borders of Samaria and Galilee. 12As he entered into a certain village, ten men who were lepers [leproi] met him, who stood at a distance. 13They lifted up their voices, saying, "Jesus, Master, have mercy on us!" 14When he saw them, he said to them, "Go and show yourselves to the priests." It happened that as they went, they were cleansed [katharizō]. 15One of them, when he saw that he was healed [iaomai], turned back, glorifying [doxazō] God with a loud voice. 16He fell on his face at Jesus' feet, giving him thanks [eucharisteō]; and he was a Samaritan. 17Jesus answered, "Weren't the ten cleansed [katharizō]? But where are the nine? 18Were there none found who returned to give glory [didōmi doxan] to God, except this stranger [allogenēs]?" 19Then he said to him, "Get up, and go your way. Your faith has healed [sesōken] you." 20Being asked by the Pharisees when the Kingdom of God would come, he answered them, "The Kingdom of God doesn't come with observation; 21neither will they say, 'Look, here!' or, 'Look, there!' for consider it [idou]; the Kingdom of God is within you." 22He said to the disciples, "The days will come, when you will desire to see one of the days of the Son of Man, and you will not see it. 23They will tell you, 'Look, here!' or 'Look, there!' Don't go away, nor follow after them, 24for as the lightning, when it flashes out of the one part under the sky, shines to the other part under the sky; so will the Son of Man be in his day. 25But first, he must suffer many things and be rejected [apodokimazō] by this generation. 26As it happened in the days of Noah, even so will it be also in the days of the Son of Man. 27They ate, they drank, they married, they were given in marriage, until the day that Noah entered into the ship, and the flood [kataklysmos] came, and destroyed [apollymi] them all. 28Likewise, even as it happened in the days of Lot: they ate, they drank, they bought, they sold, they planted, they built; 29but in the day that Lot went out from Sodom, it rained fire and sulfur from the sky, and destroyed [apōlesen] them all. 30It will be the same way in the day that the Son of Man is revealed [apokalyptō]. 31In that day, he who will be on the housetop, and his goods in the house, let him not go down to take them away. Let him who is in the field likewise not turn back. 32Remember Lot's wife! 33Whoever seeks to save [peripoieō] his life [psychēn] loses [apollymi] it, but whoever loses [apolesē] his life preserves [zōogoneō] it. 34I tell you, in that night there will be two people in one bed. The one will be taken, and the other will be left. 35There will be two grinding grain together. One will be taken, and the other will be left." [36Some Greek manuscripts add: "Two will be in the field: the one taken, and the other left."] 37They, answering, asked him, "Where, Lord?" He said to them, "Where the body is, there will the vultures also be gathered together."

18 1He also spoke a parable [parabolēn] to them that they must always pray, and not give up, 2saying, "There was a judge [kritēs] in a certain city who didn't fear [phobeomai] God, and didn't respect [entrepō] man. 3A widow was in that city, and she often came to him, saying, 'Defend [ekdikeō] me from my adversary!' 4He wouldn't for a while, but afterward he said to himself, 'Though I neither fear [phoboumai] God, nor respect [entrepomai] man, 5yet because this widow bothers me, I will defend [ekdikēsō] her, or else she will wear me out by her continual coming.'" 6The Lord said, "Listen to what the unrighteous judge [kritēs tēs adikias] says. 7Won't God avenge [ekdikēsin] his chosen ones [eklektōn], who are crying out to him day and night, and yet he exercises patience with them? 8I tell you that he will avenge [ekdikēsin] them quickly. Nevertheless, when the Son of Man comes, will he find faith [pistin] on the earth?" 9He spoke also this parable [parabolēn] to certain people who were convinced of their own righteousness [dikaioi], and who despised all others. 10"Two men went up into the temple to pray; one was a Pharisee, and the other was a tax collector. 11The Pharisee stood and prayed to himself like this: 'God, I thank you, that I am not like the rest of men, extortioners, unrighteous, adulterers, or even like this tax collector. 12I fast twice a week [sabbatou]

Semi-weekly fasts were observed on the second (commemorating the day of the week that Moses went up into Mount Sinai to receive the two tablets of the law) and fifth days of the week (the day when Moses came down on account of the golden calf).

. I give tithes [apodekatō]

Every Jews was required by the Levitical law to pay three tithes (tenths) of his property: one tithe for the Levites, one for the use of the temple and the great feasts, and one for the poor of the land.

of all that I get.' 13But the tax collector, standing far away, wouldn't even lift up his eyes to heaven, but beat his breast [stēthos]

Associated with grief and in particular, mourning.

, saying, 'God, be merciful to me, a sinner!' 14I tell you, this man went down to his house justified [dedikaiōmenos] rather than the other; for everyone who exalts [hypsoō] himself will be humbled, but he who humbles himself will be exalted [hypsōthēsetai]." 15They were also bringing their babies to him, that he might touch them. But when the disciples saw it, they rebuked [epitimaō] them. 16Jesus summoned them, saying, "Allow the little children to come to me, and don't hinder them, for the Kingdom of God belongs to such as these. 17Most certainly, I tell you [amēn legō hymin], whoever doesn't receive [dechomai] the Kingdom of God like a little child, he will in no way enter into it." 18A certain ruler asked him, saying, "Good [agathe] Teacher, what shall I do to inherit eternal life?" 19Jesus asked him, "Why do you call me good [agathon]? No one is good [agathos], except one--God. 20You know the commandments: 'Don't commit adultery,' 'Don't murder,' 'Don't steal,' 'Don't give false testimony [pseudomartyreō],' 'Honour your father and your mother.'" 21He said, "I have observed all these things from my youth [neotētos] up." 22When Jesus heard these things, he said to him, "You still lack one thing. Sell all that you have, and distribute it to the poor. You will have treasure in heaven [tois ouranois]. Come, follow [akoloutheō] me." 23But when he heard these things, he became very sad [perilypos], for he was very rich. 24Jesus, seeing that he became very sad, said, "How hard it is for those who have riches to enter into the Kingdom of God! 25For it is easier for a camel to enter in through a needle's eye, than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God." 26Those who heard it said, "Then who can be saved [sōzō]?" 27But he said, "The things which are impossible with men are possible with God." 28Peter said, "Look, we have left everything, and followed [akoloutheō] you." 29He said to them, "Most certainly I tell you [amēn legō hymin], there is no one who has left house, or wife, or brothers, or parents, or children, for the Kingdom of God's sake, 30who will not receive many times more in this time, and in the world to come, eternal life." 31He took the twelve aside, and said to them, "See [idou], we are going up to Jerusalem, and all the things that are written through the prophets concerning the Son of Man will be completed. 32For he will be delivered up [paradimōmi] to the Gentiles [ethnēsin], will be mocked, treated shamefully, and spit on. 33They will scourge and kill him. On the third day, he will rise again." 34They understood none of these things. This saying [to rhēma] was hidden [kruptō] from them, and they didn't understand the things that were said. 35It happened, as he came near Jericho, a certain blind man sat by the road, begging. 36Hearing a multitude going by, he asked what this meant. 37They told him that Jesus of Nazareth was passing by. 38He cried out, "Jesus, you son of David [Dabid; Heb. Bar David], have mercy on me!" 39Those who led the way rebuked [epitimaō] him, that he should be quiet; but he cried out all the more, "You son of David, have mercy on me!" 40Standing still, Jesus commanded him to be brought to him. When he had come near, he asked him, 41"What do you want me to do?" He said, "Lord, that I may see again." 42Jesus said to him, "Receive your sight. Your faith [pistis] has healed [sōzō] you." 43Immediately he received his sight, and followed [akoloutheō] him, glorifying [doxaxō] God. All the people, when they saw it, praised [edōken ainon] God.

19 1He entered and was passing through Jericho. 2There was a man named Zacchaeus. He was a chief tax collector, and he was rich. 3He was trying to see who Jesus was, and couldn't because of the crowd, because he was short. 4He ran on ahead, and climbed up into a sycamore tree to see him, for he was to pass that way. 5When Jesus came to the place, he looked up and saw him, and said to him, "Zacchaeus, hurry and come down, for today I must stay at your house." 6He hurried, came down, and received him joyfully. 7When they saw it, they all murmured, saying, "He has gone in to lodge with a man who is a sinner [hamartōlō]." 8Zacchaeus stood and said to the Lord, "Look [idou], Lord, half of my goods I give to the poor. If I have wrongfully exacted anything of anyone, I restore four times as much." 9Jesus said to him, "Today, salvation has come to this house, because he also is a son of Abraham. 10For the Son of Man came to seek and to save [sōzō] that which was lost [apollymi]." 11As they heard these things, he went on and told a parable [parabolēn], because he was near Jerusalem, and they supposed that the Kingdom of God would be revealed [anaphainō] immediately. 12He said therefore, "A certain nobleman [eugenēs]

This story was factual. At the death of Herod the Great, his son Archelaus had to undertake a long journey to 'receive for himself a kingdom'. He could not be king in Judea until his claims had been ratified by the imperial government in Rome. There was in fact a deputation of his subjects (19:14) which went to Rome to lodge a petition against his claims because of his unpopularity.

went into a far country to receive for himself a kingdom, and to return. 13He called ten servants [doulous] of his, and gave them ten mina [ēnas]

Sum of silver reckoned by weight.

coins, and told them, 'Conduct business until I come.' 14But his citizens hated [miseō] him, and sent an envoy after him, saying, 'We don't want this man to reign over us.' 15"It happened when he had come back again, having received the kingdom, that he commanded these servants [doulous], to whom he had given the money, to be called to him, that he might know what they had gained [diapragmateuomai] by conducting business. 16The first came before him, saying, 'Lord, your mina [ēna] has made ten more minas.' 17"He said to him, 'Well done, you good servant [agathe doule]! Because you were found faithful with very little, you shall have authority over ten cities.' 18"The second came, saying, 'Your mina [ēna], Lord, has made five minas.' 19"So he said to him, 'And you are to be over five cities.' 20Another came, saying, 'Lord, see [idou], your mina [ēna], which I kept laid away in a handkerchief [soudariō], 21for I feared you, because you are an exacting man. You take up that which you didn't lay down, and reap that which you didn't sow.' 22"He said to him, 'Out of your own mouth [ek tou stomatos] will I judge [krinō] you, you wicked servant [ponēre doule]! You knew that I am an exacting [austēros] man, taking up that which I didn't lay down, and reaping that which I didn't sow. 23Then why didn't you deposit my money in the bank, and at my coming, I might have earned interest on it?' 24He said to those who stood by, 'Take the mina [ēnan] away from him, and give it to him who has the ten minas.' 25"They said to him, 'Lord, he has ten minas [ēnas]!' 26'For I tell you that to everyone who has, will more be given; but from him who doesn't have, even that which he has will be taken away from him. 27But bring those enemies of mine who didn't want me to reign over them here, and kill them before me.'" 28Having said these things, he went on ahead, going up to Jerusalem. 29It happened, when he drew near to Bethsphage and Bethany, at the mountain that is called Olivet, he sent two of his disciples, 30saying, "Go your way into the village on the other side, in which, as you enter, you will find a colt [pōlon] tied, whereon no man ever yet sat. Untie it, and bring it. 31If anyone asks you, 'Why are you untying it?' say to him: 'The Lord needs it.'" 32Those who were sent went away, and found things just as he had told them. 33As they were untying the colt, its owners said to them, "Why are you untying the colt [pōlon]?" 34They said, "The Lord needs it." 35They brought it to Jesus. They threw their cloaks [himatia] on the colt [pōlon], and set Jesus on them. 36As he went, they spread their cloaks [himatia] in the way. 37As he was now getting near, at the descent of the Mount of Olives, the whole multitude of the disciples began to rejoice [chairō] and praise [aineō] God with a loud voice for all the mighty works which they had seen, 38saying, "Blessed [eulogeō] is the King who comes in the name of the Lord! Peace in heaven, and glory in the highest [hypsistois]!" 39Some of the Pharisees from the multitude said to him, "Teacher, rebuke [epitimaō] your disciples!" 40He answered them, "I tell you that if these were silent, the stones would cry out." 41When he drew near, he saw the city and wept over it, 42saying, "If you, even you, had known today the things which belong to your peace! But now, they are hidden from your eyes. 43For the days will come on you, when your enemies will throw up a barricade against you, surround you, hem you in on every side, 44and will dash you and your children within you to the ground. They will not leave in you one stone on another, because you didn't know [ginōskō] the time of your visitation." 45He entered into the temple [hieron]

One of the most splendid buildings of the ancient world. The original temple, Solomon's magnificent structure dating from the tenth century BC, had been destroyed four hundred years later, and replaced by the 'second temple'; it was this one which in the time of Jesus was undergoing a prolonged renovation by King Herod (cf. Jn 2:20), who lavished immense sums of money on it. It was a complex of buildings about a quarter of a mile square, with the actual temple itself at the centre, crowning the city of Jerusalem, which itself sat on a hilltop, so that the temple - much of its exterior plated with silver or even gold, and the rest dazzling white marble - looked from a distance like the snow-capped peak of a mountain. The temple was the centre and symbol of Jewish religion.

, and began to drive out those who bought and sold in it, 46saying to them, "It is written, 'My house is a house of prayer,' but you have made it a 'den of robbers'!" 47He was teaching daily in the temple, but the chief priests and the scribes [grammateis] and the leading men among the people sought to destroy him. 48They couldn't find what they might do, for all the people hung on to every word that he said.

20 1It happened on one of those days, as he was teaching the people in the temple and preaching the Good News [euangelizō], that the priests and scribes [grammateis] came to him with the elders [presbyterois]. 2They asked him, "Tell us: by what authority do you do these things? Or who is giving you this authority?" 3He answered them, "I also will ask you one question. Tell me: 4the baptism of John, was it from heaven, or from men?" 5They reasoned [sullogizō] with themselves, saying, "If we say, 'From heaven,' he will say, 'Why didn't you believe him?' 6But if we say, 'From men,' all the people will stone us, for they are persuaded [peithō] that John was a prophet." 7They answered that they didn't know where it was from. 8Jesus said to them, "Neither will I tell you by what authority I do these things." 9He began to tell the people this parable [parabolēn]. "A man planted a vineyard, and rented it out to some farmers, and went into another country for a long time. 10At the proper season, he sent a servant [doulon] to the farmers to collect his share of the fruit of the vineyard. But the farmers beat him, and sent him away empty. 11He sent yet another servant [doulon], and they also beat him, and treated him shamefully, and sent him away empty. 12He sent yet a third, and they also wounded him, and threw him out. 13The lord of the vineyard said, 'What shall I do? I will send my beloved [agapaō] son. It may be that seeing him, they will respect him.' 14"But when the farmers saw him, they reasoned among themselves, saying, 'This is the heir. Come, let's kill him, that the inheritance may be ours.' 15They threw him out of the vineyard, and killed him. What therefore will the lord of the vineyard do to them? 16He will come and destroy these farmers, and will give the vineyard to others." When they heard it, they said, "May it never be!" 17But he looked at them, and said, "Then what is this that is written, 'The stone which the builders rejected [apodokimazō], the same was made the chief cornerstone [kephalēn gōnias]?' 18Everyone who falls on that stone will be broken to pieces, but it will crush whomever it falls on to dust." 19The chief priests and the scribes [grammateis] sought to lay hands on him that very hour, but they feared the people--for they knew he had spoken this parable [parabolēn] against them. 20They watched him, and sent out spies, who pretended to be righteous, that they might trap him in something he said, so as to deliver him up [paradidōmi] to the power and authority of the governor [hēgemonos]

Jewish relationship to state

In the days of the Alexander the Great, before the expansion of the Roman Empire, the question of how to respond to the encroachment of Greek culture had already led to the opposite responses of isolation or enculturation and acquiescence. In between was a broad group of pious Jews in the tradition of Josiah, Ezekiel and Ezra. They did not object to foreign rule believing that as Jeremiah taught piety flourished when pagans conducted the corrupting affairs of government. Such a policy was later explicitly advocated by the Pharisees, who sprang from this tradition.

. 21They asked him, "Teacher, we know that you say and teach what is right, and aren't partial to anyone, but truly teach the way of God. 22Is it lawful [exestin] for us to pay taxes to Caesar, or not?" 23But he perceived [katanoeō] their craftiness, and said to them, "Why do you test me? 24Show me a denarius [dēnarion]. Whose image and inscription are on it?" They answered, "Caesar's." 25He said to them, "Then give to Caesar the things that are Caesar's, and to God the things that are God's." 26They weren't able to trap him in his words before the people. They marveled at his answer, and were silent. 27Some of the Sadducees came to him, those who deny that there is a resurrection [anastasin]. 28They asked him, "Teacher, Moses wrote to us that if a man's brother dies having a wife, and he is childless, his brother should take the wife, and raise up children for his brother. 29There were therefore seven brothers. The first took a wife, and died childless. 30The second took her as wife, and he died childless. 31The third took her, and likewise the seven all left no children, and died. 32Afterward the woman also died. 33Therefore in the resurrection [anastasei] whose wife of them will she be? For the seven had her as a wife." 34Jesus said to them, "The children of this age marry, and are given in marriage. 35But those who are considered worthy to attain to that age and the resurrection [anastaseōs] from the dead, neither marry, nor are given in marriage. 36For they can't die any more, for they are like the angels, and are children of God, being children of the resurrection [anastaseōs]. 37But that the dead are raised, even Moses showed at the bush, when he called the Lord 'The God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.' 38Now he is not the God of the dead, but of the living, for all are alive to him." 39Some of the scribes [grammateōn] answered, "Teacher, you speak well." 40They didn't dare to ask him any more questions. 41He said to them, "Why do they say that the Christ is David's son? 42David himself says in the book of Psalms [biblō psalmōn], 'The Lord said to my Lord, "Sit at my right hand, 43until I make your enemies the footstool of your feet."' 44"David therefore calls him Lord, so how is he his son?" 45In the hearing of all the people, he said to his disciples, 46"Beware of the scribes [grammateōn], who like to walk in long robes, and love greetings in the marketplaces [agorais], the best seats [prōtokathedrias] in the synagogues, and the best places at feasts; 47who devour [katesthiō] widows' houses, and for a pretense make long prayers: these will receive greater condemnation."

21 1He looked up, and saw the rich people who were putting their gifts into the treasury. 2He saw a certain poor widow casting in two small brass coins [lepta]. 3He said, "Truly I tell you [alēthōs lego hymin], this poor widow put in more than all of them, 4for all these put in gifts for God from their abundance, but she, out of her poverty, put in all that she had to live [bion] on." 5As some were talking about the temple and how it was decorated with beautiful stones [lithois]

The temple of Herod was built of stones so white that Josephus wrote that from a distance it looked like a mountain of snow. It was gilded in many places and brightly reflected the sun's rays. Likewise it was adorned with the spoils of war, and with voluntary offerings given in thanks or with hope of future benefits. Among such gifts, Josephus wrote of golden vines from which hung clusters of grapes as tall as a man.

and gifts, he said, 6"As for these things which you see, the days will come, in which there will not be left here one stone on another that will not be thrown down." 7They asked him, "Teacher, so when will these things be? What is the sign that these things are about to happen?" 8He said, "Watch out [blepō] that you don't get led astray, for many will come in my name, saying, 'I am he [egō eimi],' and, 'The time is at hand.' Therefore don't follow [pōreuō] them. 9When you hear of wars and disturbances, don't be terrified [ptoeō], for these things must happen first, but the end won't come immediately." 10Then he said to them, "Nation will rise against nation, and kingdom against kingdom. 11There will be great earthquakes, famines, and plagues in various places. There will be terrors and great signs from heaven. 12But before all these things, they will lay their hands on you and will persecute [diōkō] you, delivering you up [paradidōmi] to synagogues [synagōgas]

Eviction from synagogues

The collapse of the Jewish Christian Church after 70 AD and the triumph of Hellenistic Christianity led the Jews, in turn, to castigate the Christians. Under the rule of Raban Gamaliel II (c.80 - c.115AD), the Twelfth Benediction or 'Birkat ha-Minim' ('Benediction concerning heretics') was recast from being directed against the Sadducees to apply to Christians and this seems to have been the point at which the remaining Jewish followers of Christ were turned out of the synagogue. By the year 132 AD Christians and Jews were seen as open opponents or even enemies.

and prisons, bringing you before kings and governors for my name's sake. 13It will turn out as a testimony [martyrion] for you. 14Settle it therefore in your hearts not to meditate beforehand how to answer, 15for I will give you a mouth and wisdom which all your adversaries will not be able to withstand or to contradict. 16You will be handed over [paradidōmi] even by parents, brothers, relatives, and friends. They will cause some of you to be put to death. 17You will be hated [miseō] by all men for my name's sake. 18And not a hair of your head will perish [apollymi]. 19"By your endurance [hypomonē] you will win your lives [ktaomai tas psychas hymōn]. 20"But when you see Jerusalem surrounded by armies, then know that its desolation [erēmōsis] is at hand. 21Then let those who are in Judea flee to the mountains. Let those who are in the midst of her depart. Let those who are in the country not enter therein. 22For these are days of vengeance [ekdikēseōs], that all things which are written may be fulfilled. 23Woe to those who are pregnant and to those who nurse infants in those days! For there will be great distress [anagkē megalē] in the land, and wrath to this people. 24They will fall by the edge of the sword, and will be led captive into all the nations [ethnē]. Jerusalem will be trampled down by the Gentiles [ethnōn], until the times of the Gentiles [ethnōn] are fulfilled. 25There will be signs in the sun, moon, and stars; and on the earth anxiety of nations [ethnōn], in perplexity for the roaring of the sea and the waves; 26men fainting for fear, and for expectation of the things which are coming on the world: for the powers of the heavens [dynameis tōn ouranōn] will be shaken. 27Then they will see the Son of Man coming in a cloud with power and great glory [doxēs pollēs]. 28But when these things begin to happen, look up, and lift up your heads, because your redemption [apolytrōsis] is near." 29He told them a parable [parabolēn]. "See the fig tree, and all the trees. 30When they are already budding, you see it and know by your own selves that the summer is already near. 31Even so you also, when you see these things happening, know that the Kingdom of God is near. 32Most certainly I tell you [amēn legō hymin], this generation will not pass away until all things are accomplished. 33Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will by no means pass away. 34"So be careful [prosechō], or your hearts will be loaded down with carousing [kraipalē], drunkenness, and cares of this life [merimnais biōtikais], and that day will come on you suddenly. 35For it will come like a snare on all those who dwell on the surface of all the earth. 36Therefore be watchful [agrypneō] all the time, praying that you may be counted worthy to escape all these things that will happen, and to stand [histēmi] before the Son of Man." 37Every day Jesus was teaching in the temple, and every night he would go out and spend the night on the mountain that is called Olivet. 38All the people came early in the morning to him in the temple to hear him.

22 1Now the feast of unleavened bread, which is called the Passover [pascha; Heb. Pesach], drew near. 2The chief priests and the scribes [grammateis] sought how they might put him to death, for they feared the people. 3Satan entered into Judas, who was surnamed Iscariot, who was numbered with the twelve. 4He went away, and talked with the chief priests and captains [stratēgois]

Not military guards, but the Levitical officers who had charge of the temple watch.

about how he might deliver [paradidōmi] him to them. 5They were glad [echarēsan], and agreed to give him money. 6He consented, and sought an opportunity to deliver [paradounai] him to them in the absence of the multitude. 7The day of unleavened bread [azymōn; Heb. matzah] came, on which the Passover [pascha] must be sacrificed. 8He sent Peter and John, saying, "Go and prepare the Passover [Pascha; Heb. Seder] for us, that we may eat." 9They said to him, "Where do you want us to prepare?" 10He said to them, "Look [idou], when you have entered into the city, a man carrying a pitcher [keramion] of water will meet you. Follow him into the house which he enters. 11Tell the master of the house, 'The Teacher says to you, "Where is the guest room, where I may eat the Passover [pascha; Heb. Pesach] with my disciples?"' 12He will show you a large, furnished upper room. Make preparations there." 13They went, found things as he had told them, and they prepared the Passover [pascha; Heb. Seder]. 14When the hour had come, he sat down with the twelve apostles. 15He said to them, "I have earnestly desired [epithymeō epethymēsa]

'With desire I have desired'; cf. Ge 31:30, 'you longed with longing'. Repetition of this kind has been taken over into the NT Greek from OT Hebrew, where it is the regular way of expressing emphasis.

to eat this Passover [pascha; Heb. Seder] with you before I suffer, 16for I tell you, I will no longer by any means eat of it until it is fulfilled in the Kingdom of God." 17He received a cup, and when he had given thanks [eucharisteō], he said, "Take this, and share it among yourselves, 18for I tell you, I will not drink at all again from the fruit of the vine, until the Kingdom of God comes." 19He took bread [arton; Heb. matzah], and when he had given thanks [eucharistēsas], he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me." 20Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covenant [diathēkē] in my blood, which is poured out for you. 21But think of it [idou]! The hand of him who betrays [paradidontos] me is with me on the table. 22The Son of Man indeed goes, as it has been determined [horizō], but woe to that man through whom he is betrayed [paradidotai]!" 23They began to question [syzēteō] among themselves, which of them it was who would do this thing. 24There arose also a contention [philoneikia] among them, which of them was considered [dokeō] to be greatest [meizōn]. 25He said to them, "The kings of the nations [ethnōn] lord it over them, and those who have authority over them are called 'benefactors [euergetai].' 26But not so with you. But one who is the greater [meizōn] among you, let him become as the younger, and one who is governing [hēgeomai], as one who serves [diakoneō]. 27For who is greater [meizōn], one who sits at the table, or one who serves [diakonōn]? Isn't it he who sits at the table? But I am in the midst of you as one who serves. 28But you are those who have continued with [diamenō] me in my trials [perirasmois]. 29I confer [diatithēmi]

Make (of covenants or wills).

on you a kingdom, even as my Father conferred [diatithēmi] on me, 30that you may eat and drink at my table in my Kingdom. You will sit on thrones, judging the twelve tribes of Israel." 31The Lord said, "Simon, Simon, there [idou]; Satan asked to have you, that he might sift you as wheat, 32but I prayed [deomai] for you, that your faith [pistis] wouldn't fail [ekleipō]. You, when once you have turned again, establish [stērizō] your brothers [adelphous]." 33He said to him, "Lord, I am ready to go with you both to prison and to death!" 34He said, "I tell you, Peter, the rooster will by no means crow today until you deny [aparneomai] that you know me three times." 35He said to them, "When I sent you out without purse [ballantiou], and wallet [tēras], and shoes, did you lack anything?" They said, "Nothing." 36Then he said to them, "But now, whoever has a purse [ballantion], let him take it, and likewise a wallet [pēran]. Whoever has none, let him sell his cloak [himation], and buy a sword. 37For I tell you that this which is written must still be fulfilled in me: 'He was counted [logizomai] with transgressors [anomōn].' For that which concerns me has an end." 38They said, "Lord, see [idou], here are two swords." He said to them, "That is enough [himkanon eimi]." 39He came out, and went, as his custom was, to the Mount of Olives. His disciples also followed him. 40When he was at the place, he said to them, "Pray that you don't enter into temptation [peirasmon]." 41He was withdrawn from them about a stone's throw, and he knelt down and prayed, 42saying, "Father, if you are willing [boulomai], remove this cup from me. Nevertheless, not my will [thelēma], but yours, be done." 43An angel from heaven appeared to him, strengthening [enischuō] him. 44Being in agony [agōnia]

Related to the Greek for 'struggle, contest'.

he prayed more earnestly [ektenesteron]. His sweat became like great drops of blood falling down on the ground. 45When he rose up from his prayer, he came to the disciples, and found them sleeping [koimaomai] because of grief [lupēs], 46and said to them, "Why do you sleep [katheudō]? Rise [anistēmi] and pray that you may not enter into temptation [peirasmon]." 47While he was still speaking, there [idou], a multitude, and he who was called Judas, one of the twelve, was leading them. He came near to Jesus to kiss him. 48But Jesus said to him, "Judas, do you betray [paradidōmi] the Son of Man with a kiss?" 49When those who were around him saw what was about to happen, they said to him, "Lord, shall we strike with the sword?" 50A certain one of them struck the servant [doulon] of the high priest, and cut off his right ear. 51But Jesus answered, "Let me at least [eate heōs toutou] do this"--and he touched his ear, and healed [iaomai] him. 52Jesus said to the chief priests, captains of the temple [stratēgous], and elders [presbyterous], who had come against him, "Have you come out as against a robber, with swords and clubs? 53When I was with you in the temple daily, you didn't stretch out your hands against me. But this is your hour, and the power of darkness." 54They seized him, and led him away, and brought him into the high priest's house. But Peter followed from a distance. 55When they had kindled a fire in the middle of the courtyard, and had sat down together, Peter sat among them. 56A certain servant girl [paidiskē] saw him as he sat in the light, and looking intently at him, said, "This man also was with him." 57He denied [arneomai] Jesus, saying, "Woman, I don't know him." 58After a little while someone else saw him, and said, "You also are one of them!" But Peter answered, "Man, I am not!" 59After about one hour passed, another confidently affirmed, saying, "Truly this man also was with him, for he is a Galilean!" 60But Peter said, "Man, I don't know what you are talking about!" Immediately, while he was still speaking, a rooster crowed. 61The Lord turned, and looked at Peter. Then Peter remembered the Lord's word [rhēmatos], how he said to him, "Before the rooster crows you will deny [aparneomai] me three times." 62He went out, and wept bitterly. 63The men who held Jesus mocked him and beat him. 64Having blindfolded him, they struck him on the face and asked him, "Prophesy! Who is the one who struck you?" 65They spoke many other things against him, insulting [blasphēmountes] him. 66As soon as it was day, the assembly [synedrion] of the elders [presbyterion] of the people was gathered together, both chief priests and scribes [grammateis], and they led him away into their council, saying, 67"If you are the Christ, tell us." But he said to them, "If I tell you, you won't believe [pistueō], 68and if I ask, you will in no way answer me or let me go. 69From now on, the Son of Man will be seated at the right hand of the power [dynameōs; Heb. HaG' vurah] of God." 70They all said, "Are you then the Son of God?" He said to them, "You say it, because I am [hymeis legō hoti egō eimi]." 71They said, "Why do we need any more witness [martyrias]? For we ourselves have heard from his own mouth [apo tou stomatos autou]!"

23 1The whole company [plēthos; Heb. Sanhedrin] of them rose up and brought him before Pilate. 2They began to accuse him, saying, "We found this man perverting [diastrephō] the nation, forbidding paying taxes to Caesar, and saying that he himself is Christ, a king." 3Pilate asked him, "Are you the King of the Jews?" He answered him, "So you say." 4Pilate said to the chief priests and the multitudes, "I find no basis for a charge [aition] against this man." 5But they insisted [apischuon legō], saying, "He stirs up the people, teaching throughout all Judea, beginning from Galilee even to this place." 6But when Pilate heard Galilee mentioned, he asked if the man was a Galilean. 7When he found out that he was in Herod's jurisdiction, he sent him to Herod, who was also in Jerusalem during those days. 8Now when Herod saw Jesus, he was exceedingly glad, for he had wanted to see him for a long time, because he had heard many things about him. He hoped to see some miracle done by him. 9He questioned him with many words, but he gave no answers. 10The chief priests and the scribes [grammateis] stood, vehemently accusing him. 11Herod with his soldiers humiliated him and mocked him. Dressing him in luxurious clothing, they sent him back to Pilate. 12Herod and Pilate became friends [philoi] with each other that very day, for before that they were enemies [en echthra]

Although Herod arranged for Pilate and Claudia to say in his palace whenever they came to Jerusalem, their social contact with Herod was probably frigid and formal. So during the feast days Herod probably used another of his palaces.

with each other. 13Pilate called together the chief priests and the rulers and the people, 14and said to them, "You brought this man to me as one that perverts the people, and see, I have examined him before you, and found no basis for a charge [aition] against this man concerning those things of which you accuse him. 15Neither has Herod, for I sent you to him, and see, nothing worthy of death has been done by him. 16I will therefore chastise [paideuō] him and release [apoluō] him." 17Now he had to release [apoluō] one prisoner to them at the feast. 18But they all cried out together, saying, "Away with this man! Release [apolyson] to us Barabbas [Barabban; Heb. Bar-Abba]!"--19one who was thrown into prison for a certain revolt in the city, and for murder. 20Then Pilate spoke [prosphōneō] to them again, wanting to release [apoluō] Jesus, 21but they shouted, saying, "Crucify! Crucify him!" 22He said to them the third time, "Why? What evil [kakon] has this man done? I have found no capital [thanatou] crime in him. I will therefore chastise [paideusas] him and release [apolysō] him." 23But they were urgent [epikeimai] with loud voices [phōnais megalais], asking that he might be crucified. Their voices and the voices of the chief priests prevailed [katischuō]. 24Pilate decreed that what they asked for should be done. 25He released [apelusen] him who had been thrown into prison for insurrection and murder, for whom they asked, but he delivered [paradidōmi] Jesus up to their will [thelēmati]. 26When they led him away, they grabbed [epilambanomai] one Simon of Cyrene, coming from the country, and laid on [epitithēmi] him the cross [stauron], to carry [pherō] it after Jesus. 27A great multitude of the people followed him, including women [gynaikōn]

Women had greater freedom of movement than the men, and figure prominently at the crucifixion. This was for the reason that woman could not be a witness in a trial under Jewish law. Since they could not be required to give an account for what they saw and heard, women's movements were less restricted. They also were protected from violence by men who might have wanted to influence their testimony beforehand or punish them for it afterwards. Finally, despite being disqualified from testifying in court, these women could have provided many eyewitness accounts which are included in the New Testament narrative here.

who also mourned and lamented him. 28But Jesus, turning to them, said, "Daughters of Jerusalem, don't weep for me, but weep for yourselves and for your children. 29For consider this [idou]; the days are coming in which they will say, 'Blessed [makariai] are the barren, the wombs that never bore, and the breasts that never nursed.' 30Then they will begin to tell the mountains, 'Fall on us!' and tell the hills, 'Cover us [kalyptō].' 31For if they do these things in the green tree, what will be done in the dry?" 32There were also others, two criminals, led with him to be put to death [anaireō]. 33When they came to the place that is called The Skull [Kranion], they crucified [stauroō]

The condemned was fastened to the scaffold until he died of exposure, asphyxia, and loss of blood.

him there with the criminals [kakourgous]

Malefactor, any kind of wrongdoer. These two men have been called Dismas and Gesmas. The latter was the one who reproached Jesus. He was not a 'thief', neither is there evidence in the text to show that he was penitent. Mistaken zeal is indicated, or perhaps bad luck, but not sin in our sense. He must have known Jesus and understood his teaching on the 'kingdom' (hundreds had heard the stories which began, 'The kingdom of heaven is like…'). From the point of view of Rome, all three sought kingdoms other than Rome and were in 'the same condemnation'. Dismas sought the kingdom of God too was willing to exert force to lay hold of it, like Judas, Barabbas, and possibly Simon the Zealot. In fact ten thousand like Dismas would have rallied around a leader like Jesus had he been prepared to revolt against Rome. But when Dismas looks at the sign above the centre cross he sees a vision at last that violence and plotting and bloodshed cannot usher in the realm of God which he longs for, not as the terribly wicked man which he is often pictured as but the misguided, deluded fanatic and agitator. The greatest revolution took place in his own heart on a Friday in April, AD29. On the cross, in the place of failure and shame and pain, he believed in a kingdom that death could not end; and, to his everlasting honour, while the disciples were still in hiding, he believed that Jesus was its King.

, one on the right and the other on the left. 34Jesus said, "Father, forgive [aphiēmi] them, for they don't know what they are doing." Dividing his garments among them, they cast lots [klēron]

Die

At wedding parties the groom would be expected to toss children coins or nuts that could then be played for as stakes. Ceasar would one day talk of rolling a die when he faced the gravest crisis of his life, and his taste for the metaphor must have come from childhood.

. 35The people stood watching. The rulers with them also scoffed at him, saying, "He saved [sōzō] others. Let him save [sōsatō] himself, if this is the Christ of God, his chosen one [eklektos]!" 36The soldiers also mocked him, coming to him and offering him vinegar, 37and saying, "If you are the King of the Jews, save [sōson] yourself!" 38An inscription was also written over him in letters of Greek, Latin, and Hebrew: "THIS IS THE KING OF THE JEWS [ho basileus tōn Ioudaiōn outos]." 39One of the criminals [kakourgōn] who was hanged insulted [blasphēmeō]

It was common for expletives to be spitted out under the torture of crucifixion.

him, saying, "If you are the Christ, save [sōsō] yourself and us!" 40But the other answered, and rebuking [epitimaō] him said, "Don't you even fear [phobeomai] God, seeing you are under the same condemnation [krimati]? 41And we indeed justly [dikaiōs], for we receive the due reward [axia]

'Recompense'.

for our deeds, but this man has done nothing wrong [atopon]." 42He said to Jesus, "Lord, remember [mimnēskō] me when you come into your Kingdom [basileia]

No one in any of the gospels spoke to the Master calling him simply 'Jesus'.

." 43Jesus said to him, "Assuredly I tell you, today you will be with me in Paradise [paradeisō Heb. Gan-Eden]." 44It was now about the sixth hour, and darkness came over the whole land until the ninth hour. 45The sun was darkened, and the veil [katapetasma; Heb. parakhet] of the temple was torn in two. 46Jesus, crying with a loud voice, said, "Father, into your hands I commit my spirit!" Having said this, he breathed his last. 47When the centurion [ekatontarchēs] saw what was done, he glorified [doxazō] God, saying, "Certainly this was a righteous [dikaios] man." 48All the multitudes that came together to see this, when they saw the things that were done, returned home beating their breasts. 49All his acquaintances, and the women who followed with him from Galilee, stood at a distance, watching [horaō] these things. 50And consider it [idou], a man named Joseph, who was a member of the council [bouleutēs; Heb. Sanhedrin], a good [agathos] and righteous [dikaios] man 51(he had not consented to their counsel [boulē] and deed), from Arimathaea, a city of the Jews, who was also waiting for the Kingdom of God: 52this man went to Pilate, and asked for Jesus' body. 53He took it down, and wrapped it in a linen cloth, and laid him in a tomb that was cut in stone, where no one had ever been laid. 54It was the day of the Preparation, and the Sabbath was drawing near. 55The women, who had come with him out of Galilee, followed after, and saw the tomb, and how his body was laid. 56They returned, and prepared spices and ointments. On the Sabbath they rested according to the commandment.

24 1But on the first day of the week, at early dawn, they and some others came to the tomb, bringing the spices which they had prepared. 2They found the stone rolled away from the tomb. 3They entered in, and didn't find the Lord Jesus' body. 4It happened, while they were greatly perplexed about this, see [idou], two men stood by them in dazzling clothing. 5Becoming terrified, they bowed their faces down to the earth. They said to them, "Why do you seek the living among the dead? 6He isn't here, but is risen. Remember what he told you when he was still in Galilee, 7saying that the Son of Man must be delivered up [paradidōmi] into the hands of sinful men, and be crucified, and the third day rise again?" 8They remembered his words [rhēmatōn], 9returned from the tomb, and told all these things to the eleven, and to all the rest. 10Now they were Mary Magdalene, Joanna, and Mary the mother of James. The other women with them told these things to the apostles. 11These words [rhēmata] seemed to them to be nonsense [lēros]

'Idle talk.' Luke's medical training caused him to use this medical term, which is applied to the wild talk of a person in delirium.

, and they didn't believe [pisteuō] them. 12But Peter got up and ran to the tomb. Stooping and looking in, he saw the strips of linen lying by themselves, and he departed to his home, wondering what had happened. 13And think of it [idou], two of them were going that very day to a village named Emmaus [Emmaous]

Now called El Kubeibeh, a picturesque little village seven miles NW of Jerusalem in the lovely wadi called Beit Chanina.

, which was sixty stadia from Jerusalem. 14They talked [homileō]

As in the word 'homily'.

with each other about all of these things which had happened. 15It happened, while they talked [homileō] and questioned together [symporeuō], that Jesus himself came near, and went with them. 16But their eyes [ophthalmoi] were kept from recognizing [epiginōskō] him. 17He said to them, "What are you talking about as you walk, and are sad?" 18One of them, named Cleopas [Kleopas]

The other traveller is quite possibly his wife, the more likely as she is unnamed and may have told the story to Luke wishing to remain anonymous. Furthermore, they lived together, which suggests a man and his wife. Wise men do not invite strangers to a meal without consulting their wives first, especially after an absence from home for some days!

, answered him, "Are you the only stranger in Jerusalem who doesn't know the things which have happened there in these days?" 19He said to them, "What things?" They said to him, "The things concerning Jesus, the Nazarene, who was a prophet mighty in deed and word before God and all the people; 20and how the chief priests and our rulers delivered him up to be condemned to death, and crucified him. 21But we were hoping that it was he who would redeem [lytroō] Israel. Yes, and besides all this, it is now the third day since these things happened. 22Also, certain women of our company amazed [existēmi] us, having arrived early at the tomb; 23and when they didn't find his body, they came saying that they had also seen a vision of angels, who said that he was alive. 24Some of us went to the tomb, and found it just like the women had said, but they didn't see him." 25He said to them, "Foolish [anoētoi] men, and slow of heart to believe [pisteuō] in all that the prophets have spoken! 26Didn't the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory?" 27Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained [diermēneuō] to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself. 28They drew near to the village, where they were going, and he acted like he would go further. 29They urged [parabiazō] him, saying, "Stay with us, for it is almost evening, and the day is almost over." He went in to stay with them. 30It happened, that when he had sat down at the table with them, he took the bread and gave thanks [eulogeō]. Breaking it, he gave to them. 31Their eyes were opened, and they recognized [epiginōskō] him, and he vanished out of their sight. 32They said one to another, "Weren't our hearts burning within us, while he spoke to us along the way [en tē hodō], and while he opened the Scriptures [graphas; Heb. Tanakh] to us?" 33They rose up that very hour, returned to Jerusalem, and found the eleven gathered together, and those who were with them, 34saying, "The Lord is risen indeed, and has appeared to Simon!" 35They related the things that happened along the way, and how he was recognized [egnōsthē] by them in the breaking of the bread [artou; Heb. matzah]. 36As they said these things, Jesus himself stood among them, and said to them, "Peace be to you." 37But they were terrified and filled with fear, and supposed that they had seen a spirit [pneuma]. 38He said to them, "Why are you troubled [tarassō]? Why do doubts [dialogismoi] arise in your hearts [kardia]? 39See my hands and my feet, that it is truly me [hoti egō eimi autos]. Touch me and see, for a spirit [pheuma] doesn't have flesh [sarka] and bones, as you see that I have." 40When he had said this, he showed them his hands and his feet. 41While they still didn't believe [apisteō] for joy [charas], and wondered [thaumazō], he said to them, "Do you have anything here to eat?" 42They gave him a piece of a broiled fish and some honeycomb. 43He took them, and ate in front of them. 44He said to them, "This is what I told you, while I was still with you, that all things which are written in the law [nomō] of Moses, the prophets [prophētais], and the psalms [psalmois]

The Hebrew Bible (Tanakh) consisted of the 1) Law (Torah), 2) Prophets (Neviim), and 3) Holy Writings (Ketuvim). Here the Book of the Psalms is used as a section heading because it is the first in the division.

, concerning me must be fulfilled." 45Then he opened [dianoigō] their minds [noun], that they might understand [syniēmi] the Scriptures [graphas]. 46He said to them, "Thus it is written, and thus it was necessary for the Christ to suffer and to rise from the dead the third day, 47and that repentance [metanoian] and remission [aphesin] of sins should be preached [kēryssō] in his name [onomati] to all the nations [ethnē], beginning at Jerusalem. 48You are witnesses [martyres] of these things. 49See [idou], I send forth the promise of my Father on you. But wait in the city of Jerusalem until you are clothed [enduō] with power [dynamin] from on high." 50He led them out as far as Bethany, and he lifted up his hands, and blessed [eulogeō] them. 51It happened, while he blessed [eulogein] them, that he withdrew from them, and was carried up [anapherō] into heaven. 52They worshiped [proskyneō] him, and returned to Jerusalem with great joy, 53and were continually in the temple, praising [eulogeō] and blessing [eulogeō] God. Amen [Amēn].

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