1 Peter

The apostle seeks to encourage and reassure Christian churches in Asia Minor as stormy seasons of persecution begin. The letter does not reflect a situation of official and general oppression. Instead, it is a time of local harassment and sporadic persecution, a time in which Christians are warned to prepare for greater suffering for Christ's sake in the future. The date AD63, after Paul's departure from Rome following the release from his first imprisonment, and before Nero's persecution, seems likely. The geographical areas in which the recipients of the letter lived include coastal regions, mountain ranges, plateaux, lakes and river systems. They had mixed origins, ethnic roots, languages, customs, religions, and political histories. Galatia was so named after Gauls who had settled there; Gallic was still spoken there in the fourth century. The people of Lystra spoke Lycaonia (Ac 14:11). Many Jews lived in Asia Minor and Jews from Cappadocia, Pontus, and Asia were present in Jerusalem at Pentecost (Ac 2:9). Converts returning to those provinces may well have planted the gospel there in urban centres where Jewish believers and Gentile God-fearers formed the nucleus of many house churches and congregations. Much of the population was rural, however; the interior was dotted with tribal villages where Roman culture had made little impact. The power of the gospel among tribal peoples may first have become evident in Asia Minor (cf. Ac 14:8-18). Although Peter's readers included alien Jewish residents, it seems that Peter thinks of the churches to which he writes as predominantly Gentile (cf. 1:18; 4:3).



1 1Peter [Petros], an apostle [apostolos]

Messenger. One who had personally seen the Lord Jesus. An office comparable to OT prophets.

of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones [eklektois] who are living as foreigners [parepidēmois]

Exiles or aliens. Parepidēmeō is found in a decree by the king of Egypt proscribing visitors from 'sojourning' more than twenty days in Alexandria since they were abandoning their agricultural labour for the luxuries of the city (Epistle of Aristeas, 110).

in the Dispersion [diaspeirō] in Pontus [Pontou], Galatia [Galatias]

Pontus and Bithynia, on the shore of the Black Sea, are named separately although they had been joined into one Roman province. It has been suggested that Peter begins with Pontus and ends with Bithynia because he is thinking of the route that Silas or another messenger might take in delivering the letter.

, Cappadocia [Kappadokias], Asia [Asias], and Bithynia [Bithynias], 2according to the foreknowledge of God the Father, in sanctification [agiazō] of the Spirit, that you may obey Jesus Christ and be sprinkled with his blood: Grace [charis] to you and peace be multiplied. 3Blessed [eulogētos] be the God and Father of our Lord Jesus Christ, who according to his great mercy became our father again [anagennaō]

Gennaō often refers to a father's role in the birth of a child, literally in Mt 1:2-20 or figuratively, of spiritual birth (1 Cor 4:15).

to a living hope through the resurrection [anastaseōs] of Jesus Christ from the dead, 4to an incorruptible [aphtharton] and undefiled [amianton] inheritance [klēronomian]

A believer's future reward. Used in the OT of Israel's coming into the Promised Land.

that doesn't fade away [amaranton], reserved in Heaven for you, 5who by the power of God are guarded [phroureō]

Kept safe. Carefully watched. Often used in military contexts (Philo, Moses 1.235; Judith 3:6; 1 Esdras 4:56; Wisdom 17:16). Can also mean kept from escaping (2 Cor 11:32) and protected from attack (Gal 3:23; Phil 4:7, where used figuratively).

through faith [pisteōs] for a salvation ready to be revealed [apokalyptō] in the last time [kairō eschatō]. 6Wherein you greatly rejoice [agalliaō]

This verb is not used by secular Greek writers, and always in the NT signifies a deep spiritual joy, a rejoicing in what God or what he has done (e.g., Lk 1:46-47; Ac 16:34).

, though now for a little while, if need be, you have been put to grief [lypeō]

Always refers to the emotion of grief, not to the suffering which produces grief (note Mt 14:9; 17:23; 18:31; 1 Thes 4:13).

in various trials [peirasmois], 7that the proof [dokimion]

Meaning 'genuine' or 'proven' outside NT usage. A papyrus scrap mentions gold buckles of dokimion gold.

of your faith [pisteōs], which is more precious than gold that perishes [apollymi] even though it is tested [dokimazō] by fire, may be found to result in praise, glory, and honour at the revelation [apokalyptō] of Jesus Christ--8whom not having known you love [agapaō]; in whom, though now you don't see him, yet believing [pisteuō], you rejoice greatly with joy unspeakable [aneklalētō]

Only NT occurrence describing a joy so profound as to be beyond the power of words to express.

and full of glory [doxazō]

A term that would naturally remind Peter's readers of the frequent OT mention of the glory of God, that bright shining radiance which surrounded the presence of God himself.

--9receiving [komizō] the result [telos] of your faith [pisteōs], the salvation [sōtērian] of your souls [psychōn]. 10Concerning this salvation, the prophets sought [ekzēteō]

Implies diligent searching, often in a religious sense.

and searched diligently [ekeraunaō]

Only occurs here in the NT but found 32 times in LXX, Josephus, and Philo. Often refers to searching through something like a house, tent, city, or country for someone or something. Can refer to scouring the scriptures.

, who prophesied of the grace [charitos] that would come to you, 11searching for [eraunaō] who or what kind of time the Spirit of Christ, which was in them, pointed to, when he predicted the sufferings of Christ, and the glories that would follow them. 12To them it was revealed [apokalyptō], that not to themselves, but to you, they ministered [diakoneō] these things, which now have been announced to you through those who preached the Good News [euangelizō] to you by the Holy Spirit sent out [apostellō] from heaven; which things angels desire to look into [parakyptō]

Surreptitiously peeking in from the outside as in Ge 26:8; 1 Ch 15:29; 1 Enoch 9:1 of angels peering from heaven.

. 13Therefore, prepare your minds for action [anazōnnymi]

As in gathering up long robes and wrapping them around the waist before strenuous activity. See 1 Ki 18:46; 2 Ki 4:29; 9:1; Ex 12:11; Jb 38:3; 40:7; Je 1:17; Lk 12:35.

, be sober [nephō] and set your hope fully on the grace that will be brought [pheromenēn]

That is being carried to you.

to you at the revelation of Jesus Christ--14as children of obedience, not conforming yourselves according to your former lusts as in your ignorance [agnoia], 15but just as he who called [kaleō] you is holy, you yourselves also be holy in all of your behaviour [anastrophē ginomai]; 16because it is written, "You shall be holy; for I am holy." 17If you call [epikaleō]

Call on for help, appeal to.

on him as Father, who without respect of persons judges [krinō] according to each man's work, pass the time of your living [chronon anastrephō] as foreigners [paroikias] here in reverent fear [phobō]: 18knowing that you were redeemed [lytroō]

Purchase someone's freedom by paying a ransom. As in the manumission of a slave or someone held hostage by an enemy.

, not with corruptible things [phthartois], with silver or gold, from the useless way of life [anastrophēs] handed down from your fathers, 19but with precious [timios] blood, as of a faultless and pure lamb, the blood of Christ; 20who was foreknown [proginōskō] indeed before the foundation of the world, but was revealed [phaneroō] at the end of times [eschatou tōn chronōn] for your sake, 21who through him are believers [pisteuō] in God, who raised him from the dead, and gave him glory; so that your faith [pistin] and hope might be in God. 22Seeing you have purified [hagnizō] your souls [psychas]

Inward spiritual nature. Psychē can refer to the whole person (3:20; 2 Pet 2:14) but Peter could have used heatous for yourselves if he did not mean inward nature.

in your obedience to the truth through the Spirit in sincere brotherly affection [philadelphian], love [agapaō] one another from the heart [katharas kardias] fervently: 23having been born again [anagennaō], not of corruptible seed [sporas phthartēs], but of incorruptible [aphthartou], through the word [logou] of God, which lives [zōntos] and remains forever. 24For, "All flesh [sarx] is like grass, and all of man's glory like the flower in the grass. The grass withers, and its flower falls; 25but the Lord's [kyriou; Heb. Adonai] word [rhēma] endures forever." This is the word [rhēma] of Good News which was preached [euangelizō] to you.

2 1Putting away [apotithēmi]

Put away, give up, get rid of. Used of taking off clothing in Ac 7:58 and elsewhere of putting off wrong practices.

therefore all wickedness [kakian], all deceit [dolon], hypocrisies [hypokriseis], envies, and all evil speaking [katalalias], 2as newborn babies, long for the pure [adolon] milk of the Word [logikon]

Lit. 'As newborn babes, the logikon ('mental', 'reasonable') genuine milk long after'.

, that you may grow [auxanō] thereby, 3if indeed you have tasted that the Lord is gracious [chrēstos]: 4coming [proserchomai]

Used in LXX of drawing near to God, either to hear him speak (Lev 9:5; Dt 4:11; 5:27) or to come into his presence in the tabernacle to offer sacrifices (Ex 12:48; 16:9; Lev 9:7-8; 10:4-5).

to him, a living stone, rejected [apodokimazō] indeed by men, but chosen [eklekton] by God, precious. 5You also, as living stones, are built up as a spiritual house [oikos pneumatikos], to be a holy [agion] priesthood [hierateuma], to offer up spiritual sacrifices, acceptable [euprosdektous] to God through Jesus Christ. 6Because it is contained in Scripture [graphē Heb. Tanakh], "See [idou], I lay [tithēmi]

Establish.

in Zion a chief cornerstone, chosen [eklekton], and precious: He who believes [pisteuō] in him will not be disappointed [kataischynō]." 7For you who believe [pisteuousin] therefore is the honour, but for those who are disobedient [apistousin], "The stone which the builders rejected, has become the chief cornerstone [kephalē]

'Head of the corner', where head can stand for 'end point, furthest extremity' and 'top'.

," 8and, "a stone of stumbling [proskoptō]

Can mean literally tripping over something and falling (Jn 11:9-10), but here it has a more figurative sense, 'take offence at and reject' (cf. Ro 9:32; 14:21; and the related noun in Ro 14:13; 1 Co 8:9).

, and a rock of offense [skandalou]." For they stumble at the word [logō], being disobedient [apeitheō]

Has the sense of being in rebellion against.

, to which also they were appointed [tithēmi]

Used of appointing or predestining a particular event or situation long before it happens (Ac 1:7; Ro 4:17; 1 Thes 5:9; Heb 1:2) or of God's establishing someone in a certain situation not long beforehand but at a certain point in time (cf. Mt 22:44; 20:28; Ro 9:33; 1 Cor 12:18,28). Used in contrast here to its use in v6 above.

. 9But you are a chosen [eklekon] race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation [ethnos agion], a people for God's own possession [laos eis peripoiēsin], that you may proclaim the excellence [aretas exangellō] of him who called [kaleō] you out of darkness into his marvelous light: 10who in time past were no people, but now are God's people, who had not obtained mercy [eleeō], but now have obtained mercy [eleeō]. 11Beloved [agapētoi], I beg [parakaleō] you as foreigners [paroikous] and pilgrims [parepidēmous], to abstain from fleshly [sarkikōn] lusts, which war against [strateuō]

'To serve as a soldier' (see 1 Cor 9:7; 2 Tim 2:4; Jas 4:1).

the soul [psychēs]; 12having good behaviour [anastrephō] among the nations [ethnesin], so in that of which they speak against you as evildoers, they may by your good works, which they see [epopteuō]

'Look upon, watch' - only occurs in the NT here and in 3:2.

, glorify God in the day of visitation [hēmera episkopēs]

Only occurrence of such a phrase in the Bible so may not be a code name for judgement but simply 'on a day when God visits'.

. 13Therefore subject yourselves to every ordinance [ktisis]

'Human institution' - usually means (every) creature or thing created but the word is used in extra-biblical literature to refer to acts of building a government or founding a city; things which require a hierarchy of authority. Josephus uses 'ktisis' to refer to 'settlements' which the Jews established after leaving Babylon (Ant. 18.373).

of man for the Lord's sake: whether to the king [basilei]

Or emperor.

, as supreme; 14or to governors [hēgemōn]

Used of Pilate and Felix.

, as sent by him for vengeance [ekdikeō]

Has the connotation of taking vengeance, making a wrongdoer pay a penalty for the wrong done. See Rom 12:19; 2 Thes 1:8; Heb 10:30.

on evildoers and for praise [epainon] to those who do well. 15For this is the will of God, that by well-doing you should put to silence [phimoō] the ignorance [aphronōn] of foolish [agnosian] men: 16as free, and not using your freedom for a cloak of wickedness, but as bondservants [douloi] of God. 17Honor all men [pantas]. Love [agapaō] the brotherhood [adelphotēta]. Fear [phobeomai] God. Honor the king [basilea]

Or emperor.

. 18Servants [oiketai]

A less common word for servant than doulos and suggests a nuance of service within a household. First-century slaves were generally well treated and were not only unskilled laboureres but often managers, overseers, and trained medical workers, teachers, musicians and artisans. Laws governed how slaves could be treated. They were paid for their services and could buy their own freedom. Their service was involuntary, having ended up as slaves through war or kidnapping from foreign lands, or later, by simply being born into slave households. They occupied a low social class. The slave-master relationship was the most common work relationship in the ancient world.

, be in subjection [hypotassō] to your masters [despotais] with all fear [phobō]

Perhaps not fear of punishment or harm but a healthy desire to avoid displeasure.

; not only to the good and gentle, but also to the wicked [skoliois]

Literally, crooked, see Lk 3:5. Metaphorically means 'dishonest, morally evil,' as in Ac 2:40; Phil 2:15.

. 19For it is commendable if someone endures pain [lypē]

Mental pain, sorrow or grief, but not once used of physical pain in the NT.

, suffering unjustly [adikōs], because of conscience toward God. 20For what glory is it if, when you sin, you patiently endure beating? But if, when you do well, you patiently endure suffering, this is commendable [touto charis]

Then you have God's approval or 'favour'.

with God. 21For to this you were called [kaleō], because Christ also suffered [paschō] for us, leaving you an example, that you should follow his steps, 22who did not sin, "neither was deceit found in his mouth." 23Who, when he was cursed, didn't curse back. When he suffered, didn't threaten, but committed [paradidōmi]

Handed over, delivered, committed.

himself to him who judges righteously [krinō dikaiōs]; 24who his own self bore [anapherō]

Can mean 'carried up' but also 'bear, carry, endure'. Polybius (2nd century BC) 1.36.3 refers to bearing slander and false accusation for a time; 4.45.9: to bear or endure the burden of war and Thucydides (C5th BC 3.38.3: the city itself bears, endures dangers.

our sins in his body on the tree [xylon]

Or cross since xylon means 'wood or object made of wood': clubs in Mt 26:47, 55; stocks in Ac 16:24; tree in Rev 22:2. Xylon rather than stauros for cross may be an attempt to recall the curse imagery of Dt 21:23.

, that we, having died to sins, might live to righteousness [dikaiosynē zaō]; by whose stripes you were healed [iaomai]. 25For you were going astray like sheep; but now have returned to the Shepherd and Overseer [episkopon] of your souls [psychōn].

3 1In like manner, wives, be in subjection [hypotassō]

This term is applied elsewhere in the NT to relationships between government and citizens, masters and servants, disciples and demons. Outside the NT it is used to describe the submission and obedience of soldiers in an army to those of superior rank (cf. Josephus, War 2.566, 578; 5.309).

to your own husbands; so that, even if any don't obey [apeithousin] the Word [logō], they may be won by the behaviour [anastrophēs] of their wives without a word [logou]; 2seeing [epopteuō] your pure behaviour [anastrophēn] in fear [en phobō]. 3Let your beauty be not just the outward adorning of braiding the hair, and of wearing jewels of gold, or of putting on fine clothing [himation]

The Greek contains no adjective modifying clothing. Lit. 'not the outward of braiding of hair, and putting around of gold, or putting on of garments adorning'.

; 4but in the hidden person of the heart, in the incorruptible [aphthartō] adornment of a gentle [praeōs]

This adjective occurs three other times in the NT (Mt 5:5; 11:29; 21:5) but the related noun translated 'gentleness' or 'meekness' is more frequent.

and quiet [hēsychiou] spirit, which is in the sight of God very precious. 5For this is how the holy women before, who hoped in God also adorned themselves, being in subjection [hypotassomenai] to their own husbands: 6as Sarah obeyed Abraham, calling him lord [kyrion], whose children you now are, if you do well, and are not put in fear by any terror [phobeomai]. 7You husbands, in like manner, live with your wives according to knowledge, giving honour to the woman [gynaikeiō]

'The female' or 'feminine one'.

, as to the weaker vessel [skeuos]

Often means 'vessel, jar, container' but used elsewhere to refer to human beings created by God and intended for his use. The fact that the woman is called a vessel implies that the man is also viewed as a vessel.

, as being also joint heirs of the grace of life [charitos zōēs]; that your prayers may not be hindered [egkoptō]. 8Finally, be all like-minded [emophrones], compassionate [sympatheis], loving as brothers [philadelphoi], tenderhearted [eusplagchnoi], courteous [tapeinophrones], 9not rendering evil for evil, or insult for insult; but instead blessing [eulogountes]; knowing that to this were you called [kaleō], that you may inherit a blessing [eulogian]. 10For, "He who would love life [zōēn agapaō], and see good [agathas] days, let him keep his tongue from evil, and his lips from speaking deceit [dolon]. 11Let him turn away [ekklinō] from evil [kakou], and do good [agathon]. Let him seek peace, and pursue [diōkō] it. 12For the eyes of the Lord are on the righteous, and his ears open to their prayer; but the face of the Lord is against those who do evil [kaka]." 13Now who is he who will harm you, if you become imitators of that which is good? 14But even if you should suffer for righteousness' [dikaiosynēn] sake, you are blessed [makarioi]. "Don't fear [phobeomai] what they fear [phobon], neither be troubled [tarassō]

'Be shaken up, disturbed, frightened', often implying emotional turmoil.

." 15But sanctify [hagiazō]

Normally means 'sanctify, make holy', but here seems to have the sense, 'treat holy, regard reverently' (cf. Mt 6:9; Is 8:13).

the Lord God in your hearts; and always be ready to give an answer [apologian]

Reply to an accusation, sometimes in formal legal proceedings, though not necessarily meant here; 'always… whenever'.

to everyone who asks you a reason [logon] concerning the hope that is in you, with humility and fear: 16having a good [agathos] conscience [syneidēsin]; that, while you are spoken against as evildoers [katalaleō], they may be disappointed who curse [epēreazō] your good manner of life [anastrophēn] in Christ. 17For it is better, if it is God's will, that you suffer for doing well than for doing evil. 18Because Christ also suffered [paschō] for sins once, the righteous [dikaios] for the unrighteous [adikōn], that he might bring you to God; being put to death in the flesh [sarki], but made alive [zōopoieō] in the spirit [pneuma]; 19in which he also went and preached [kēryssō] to the spirits [pneumasin] in prison, 20who before were disobedient, when God waited patiently in the days of Noah, while the ship was being built. In it, few, that is, eight souls [psychai], were saved through [diasōzō]

Lit. 'escaped through'.

water. 21This is a symbol of baptism, which now saves [sōzō] you--not the putting away of the filth of the flesh [sarkos], but the answer [eperōtēma]

Usually means 'question' and has not elsewhere been found with the meaning 'appeal'. It came to have the sense 'pledge' in the 2nd century AD (after the time of the NT). There are no known examples of the noun meaning 'appeal' but the related verb is used with the sense to 'make a request, ask for something' (Mt 16:1). So Peter's audience may have understood something in the sense 'request'.

of a good conscience toward God, through the resurrection [anastaseōs] of Jesus Christ, 22who is at the right hand of God, having gone into heaven, angels and authorities and powers being made subject [hypotassō] to him.

4 1Forasmuch then as Christ suffered for us in the flesh [sarki], arm yourselves also with the same mind [ennoian]

Means not so much an attitude of mind but the insight which one has gained into the nature of God's dealings with people; 'thought'.

; for he who has suffered in the flesh [sarki] has ceased from sin; 2that you no longer should live [bioō] the rest of your time in the flesh [sarki] for the lusts of men, but for the will of God. 3For we have spent enough of our past time doing the desire of the Gentiles [ethnōn], and having walked in lewdness [aselgeia]

Lacking moral restraint in morality or violence; used in 2 Pet 2:7 of Sodom.

, lusts [epithymia]

Passions or sinful human desires which pull people away from God; only used in a negative sense by Peter but used positively in Lk 22:15; Phil 1:23; 1 Thes 2:17.

, drunken binges, orgies [kōmos]

Revels; banquets or feasts given to wild immorality.

, carousings [potos]

Drinking parties or bouts.

, and abominable idolatries [athemitio eidōlotriai]

Plural: lawless acts of idol worship meaning those against the civil laws, evil kinds of immorality even forbidden by the laws of human governments.

. 4They think it is strange that you don't run [syntrechō]

Literally 'run with them'.

with them into the same excess of riot [asōtia]

Uncontrolled indulgence in the seeking of pleasure; used in Eph 5:18 and the related adverb describes the loose living of the prodigal (Lk 15:13).

, blaspheming [blasphēmountes]: 5who will give account [logon] to him who is ready to judge [krinō] the living and the dead. 6For to this end the Good News was preached [euangelizō] even to the dead, that they might be judged [krinō] indeed as men in the flesh [sarki], but live [zaō] as to God in the spirit [de kata theon pneumati]. 7But the end [telos] of all things is near. Therefore be of sound mind [sōphroneō]

'Sane', 'having a sound mind, thinking about and evaluating situations maturely and correctly'; cf. Lk 8:35; Ro 12:3; 2 Tim 1:7; Tit 1:8.

, self-controlled, and sober in prayer. 8And above all things be earnest [ektenēs]

Earnestly or fervently; used of strong, deeply felt emotions or desires; see Joel 1:14; Jon 3:8; Ac 12:5; 26:7.

in your love [agapēn] among yourselves, for love [agapē] covers a multitude of sins. 9Be hospitable [philoxenoi] to one another without grumbling. 10As each has received a gift [charisma], employ it in serving [diakoneō] one another, as good managers [kaloi oikonomoi] of the grace [charitos] of God in its various [poikilos]

Many faceted, having many different aspects or differing kinds; cf. Mt 4:24; 1 Pe 1:6.

forms. 11If anyone speaks, let it be as it were the very words [logia] of God. If anyone serves [diakoneō], let it be as of the strength which God supplies [chorēgeō]

Cf. note on 2 Pet 1:5.

, that in all things God may be glorified [doxazō] through Jesus Christ, to whom belong the glory and the dominion forever and ever. Amen [amēn]. 12Beloved [agapētoi], don't be astonished [xenizō] at the fiery [pyrōsei]

Fire, burning as in Rev 18:9, 18 but also refining fire as in Prov 27:21; period or process of testing.

trial [peirasmos]

Used in 1:6 in its positive sense of a trial expected to have a positive outcome.

which has come upon you, to test you, as though a strange [xenou] thing happened to you. 13But because you are partakers [koinōneō] of Christ's sufferings, rejoice [chairō]; that at the revelation [apokalyptō] of his glory [doxē] you also may rejoice with exceeding joy [agalliaō]. 14If you are insulted [oneidizō] for the name of Christ, you are blessed; because the Spirit of glory [doxēs; Heb. Sh'khinah] and of God rests [anapauō] on you. On their part he is blasphemed, but on your part he is glorified [doxazō]. 15For let none of you suffer as a murderer, or a thief, or an evil doer, or a meddler in other men's matters. 16But if one of you suffers for being a Christian [Christianos]

Found only in the NT here and at Ac 11:26; 26:28. Formed like the work 'Herodian', (Mk 3:6; 12:13) which means 'follower or supporter of Herod'.

, let him not be ashamed; but let him glorify [doxazetō] God in this matter. 17For the time has come for judgment [krima]

Not necessarily 'condemnation' (katakrima) but judgement which results in good and bad evaluations, approval as well as discipline and condemnation.

to begin with [archomai apo]

Begin from.

the household [oikou]

Never refers to God's family in the LXX but always to the Temple, the 'house of God'.

of God. If it begins first with us, what will happen [telos] to those who don't obey [epeitheō] the Good News [euangeliō] of God? 18"If it is hard for the righteous [dikaios] to be saved [sōzō], what will happen to the ungodly and the sinner?" 19Therefore let them also who suffer [paschō] according to the will of God in doing good entrust [paratithēmi]

'To give to someone for safekeeping, to turn over to someone to care for'; see Lk 23:46.

their souls [psychas] to him, as to a faithful [pistō] Creator.

5 1I exhort [parakeleō] the elders [presbyterous] among you, as a fellow elder [sympresbyteros], and a witness [martys] of the sufferings of Christ, and who will also share [koinōneō] in the glory that will be revealed [apokalyptō]. 2Shepherd [poimainō]

Serve as shepherd, serve as pastor. Note word play with poimnion, 'flock'.

the flock [poimnion] of God which is among you, exercising the oversight [episkopeō], not under compulsion, but voluntarily, not for dishonest gain [aischrokerdōs], but willingly [prothymōs]; 3neither as lording it over [katakyrieuō]

Forcefully ruling over, subduing, with the connotation of a harsh or excessive use of authority (used in Mt 20:25; Mk 10:42; Act 19:16; and in the context of military conquests, Nu 21:24; 32: 22, 29; Ps 110:2, etc). The word involves bringing something into subjection by the use of force, whether physical, military, or political.

those entrusted to you, but making yourselves examples [typoi] to the flock. 4When the chief Shepherd [archipoimenos]

Where the flocks were numerous and a number of shepherds were required, one was placed in overall charge (cf. Ge 47:6; 1 Sam 21:7).

is revealed [phaneroō], you will receive [komizō] the crown [stephanos]

Used of a victor's crown or 'wreath' in athletic conquests (1 Cor 9:25), or a golden crown given by a Roman general to soldiers most valiant in battle (Josephus, 'War', 7:14), or a crown worn by a king. In every case it is a sign of special honour, given not to all but only to those worthy of particular public recognition, commonly as a reward for some kind of unusually meritorious activity.

of glory that doesn't fade away [amarantinon]. 5Likewise, you younger ones, be subject [hypotassō]

Be subject, implying submission to an authority, not just deference or respect.

to the elder [presbyteroi]

Can either mean 'older people' or 'those who have the office of elder'.

. Yes, all of you gird yourselves with humility, to subject yourselves to one another; for "God resists [antitassomai] the proud [hyperēphanois], but gives grace [charin] to the humble [tapeinophrosynē]." 6Humble yourselves [tapeinoō] therefore under the mighty hand of God, that he may exalt you in due time; 7casting all your worries [merimnan] on him, because he cares [melei] for you. 8Be sober and self-controlled [nephō]. Be watchful [grēgoreō]

Indicates spiritual alertness, with perhaps more of an emphasis on one's focus of attention (watching for sin, for attacks of evil).

. Your adversary the devil [diabolos]

Slanderer, false accuser. The term is applied to Haman in the LXX (Esther 8:1).

, walks around like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour [katapinō]

Swallow up, as in the case of the big fish with Jonah.

. 9Withstand [antistēmi]

Implies active, determined opposition, often through confrontation (used of the Egyptian magicians who opposed Moses in 2 Tim 3:8).

him steadfast [stereoi] in your faith [pistei], knowing that your brothers [adelphotēti] who are in the world [kosmō] are undergoing the same sufferings. 10But may the God of all grace [charitos], who called [kaleō] you to [eis] his eternal glory by Christ Jesus, after you have suffered a little while, perfect [katartizō], establish [stērizō], strengthen [sthenoō], and settle [themelioō] you. 11To him be the glory and the power forever and ever. Amen [amēn]. 12Through Silvanus [Silouanou]

Silvanus is closely connected with Paul's ministry (2 Cor 1:19; 1 Thes 1:1; 2 Thes 1:1) and is the same person whom Luke calls 'Silas' in Acts (Acts 15:22-18:5). He has been thought of either as a messenger who carried the letter or as a secretary (amanuensis) who recorded the letter as Peter spoke. Silas was Paul's fellow-missionary in Asia Minor and in Greece, and is associated with Paul in the address of the letters to the Thessalonians. He was also a representative of the apostles and elders in Jerusalem, and is named as a prophet (Ac 15:32). Peter's phrase describing the service of Silas is used of the bearer of a letter, who was regarded as a representative of the sender. Silas was more than a letter-carrier. He had a voice in the Jerusalem Council that prepared the letter he carried for that body. So, too, he may have conferred with Peter in the preparation of the letter, or may have drafted it under Peter's direction.

, our faithful brother [pistou adelphou], as I consider [logizomai] him, I have written to you briefly, exhorting [parakaleō], and testifying [epimartyreō] that this is the true grace [charin] of God in which you stand [histēmi]. 13She who is in Babylon [Babylōni]

Babylon was the great city of world empire for the OT prophets; it was also the city of exile, where Israel lived as resident aliens.

, chosen together [syneklektē] with you, greets you; and so does Mark [Markos], my son. 14Greet one another with a kiss of love [agapēs]. Peace be to you all who are in Christ Jesus. Amen [amēn].

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